پالت رنگی، تکنیک طراحی منظر رنگی شهرها

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد طراحی شهری، دانشکده شهرسازی و معماری، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران.

2 کارشناسی ارشد طراحی شهری، دانشکده شهرسازی و معماری، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

اهمیت چشمگیر رنگ ها در محیط زندگی انسان ها امروزه امری بدیهی است. این اهمیت تا جایی است که می توان ادعا کرد که رنگ فضاهای شهری نمودی از فرهنگ شهروندان محسوب شده و یکی از عوامل تأثیرگذار در طراحی فضاهای شهری که مقفول ماندن آن می تواند کیفیت های عرصه های عمومی را تحت تأثیر قرار دهد، می باشد. بدین ترتیب منظر رنگی شهر یکی از اصلی ترین عوامل جذابیت محیط و فضاهای شهری بوده و سمبلی برای شخصیت آن به حساب می آید. بر این اساس استفاده صحیح از رن گها در شهر و فضاهای شهری قادر است، ما را در ارتقاء خوشایندی شهر در نظر شهروندان و گردشگران یاری رساند. برخی معتقدند که هر شهر باید یک بوم رنگی باشد که شخصیتش را انعکاس دهد. متأسفانه
امروزه در کشور ما به منظر رنگی شهر اهمیت چندانی داده نمی شود. منظر رنگی شهر نه تنها با چهره بیرونی شهر در ارتباط است؛ بلکه کیفیت محیطی فضاهای عمومی را نیز تحت تأثیر قرار میدهد. به رغم اهمیت بالای رنگ در شهرها و مکان های شهری، شهرهای کشور با افول کیفیت منظر رنگی روبه رو شد هاند. با وجود پژوهش های جسته گریخته ای در این زمینه انجام پذیرفته، اما ابزاری برای مدیریت کاربرد رنگ در مکان های شهری ارائه نشده است. جهت دستیابی به یک منظر رنگی مناسب و معقول، باید در منظر رنگی فضاهای شهری تجدیدنظر شده و ساماندهی و باز طراحی شوند. آنچه در مقاله پیش رو مورد نظر است، ارائه یک فرآیند یا روش جهت استفاده از رنگ در جهت ارتقاء کیفی فضاهای همگانی می باشد. بدین منظور نظریه ترجیحات محیطی کاپلا نها ملاک عمل قرار داده شده است. متعاقباً مفهوم پالت رنگی و چگونگی استفاده از این تکنیک با توجه به گوناگونی فضاها، توقعات از آن ها، مقیاس و غیره شرح داده می شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Color Palette as a Landscape Design Technique: City Designing

نویسندگان [English]

  • Jahanshah Pakzad 1
  • Kaveh Einollahi 2
1 Professor of Urban Design, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Design, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran
2 M.A. of Urban Design, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Design, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Since the human perception of urban landscape components and the relations between them plays a determinant role in people’s valuation of environment, urban landscape has been become one of the most considerable issues of urban designers from many years ago till now. It can say that we have different kinds of factors which are influencing
urban landscape directly or in an indirect ways. Through this field, color as a formal and impartible characteristics of environment, highly effect the pleasant of the place for citizens. Nowadays our cities and its various places present themselves as black, white and gray places. We forgot to count on how much colors can bring vitality and life to
our urban places. Therefore, most of the times, colors which have been used for urban space elements, are neutral and uncoordinated, or at least they selected without any sense of meaning to each other and to the place they located in. in the other words, we do not use any kind of planning or designing for color scape in our cities. Meanwhile the city and its places bring some specific expectations in citizen’s mind, each color, related to its hue, brightness and intense, provides a deferent theme of the spaces and influences the audience in various ways. If the efforts of designing these spaces have no adaption to such features and expectations, confusion in the character of the place will be the result. Obviously this kind of confusion will decrease the tendency of standing in those places. In addition, it is obvious that in every culture and climate, there are some kinds of symbolic meaning for specific colors which means something deferent in other cultures and climates. Unfortunately, in Iranians cities this fact hasn’t been considered and we faced with imitation the foreign patterns in our cities. It brings many damages and challenges to the identity of urban places in our country. Also because of the unawareness of urban designers and implementers about the chemistry of color structure science, most of the colors which have been used in our urban spaces are inconvenient, and they do not have any connection to the meaning of the selected colors. That’s why sometimes our urban places become more and more unpleasant. One of the other dilemmas of applying color in our urban spaces is the variety of valid color products in quality and type at the market. Choosing an inappropriate color brings us many problems only after a short time, such as damages in surface and cracking or loosing ones real color because of the weather changes likes raining and sunshine. According to what is mentioned above, among the urban design guidelines which urban designers are using toward promoting the quality of places, a place oriented Urban Design guide is the goal this investigation . This design guidance includes most of the leads about the application of the colors in the cities and urban spaces with emphasizing on places and the colors features. The importance of colors in human’s living environment becomes more and more obvious. Urban color scape is one of the main attractions of city which is considered as a symbol of its character. Some believes that the city should be a colored canvas that reflects its character and identity. But unfortunately, the subject of urban color scape has been neglected most of the time. Urban color scape is not only in relation with outer urban scape, but also it  has undeniable effects on quality of public spaces. Considering the importance of color in cities and their public spaces, the cities of our country are facing retrogression in this subject. Despite of some researches which have been done in this area, the blank space of urban color scape management is steel truly clear. This essay is going to provide a useable process or methodology to improve the quality of public spaces by designing their color scape. Towered this object, we need to introduce the “color palette” concept and the way to use this technique to suit a variety of spaces, expectation, and other aspects. It will give every urban space a specific guidance for color designing. Given the importance of color city scape in order to encourage citizens toward using that spaces and percept them, it is necessary to organize color scape design. In this research we will present the color pallet as a practical technique for designing urban color scape. Color pallet will give us an appropriate amount of each criterion for different urban places by studding urban color platforms and the expectations of urban places. Keywords: City, Accessibility, Commute Mode, Babolsar City.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Color
  • Color Scape
  • Color Pallet
  • Urban Design
  • Urban Place

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