تحلیل تجربی رابطه شاخص‌های فرم شهر با امنیت ادراکی ساکنان، مورد مطالعاتی: شهر شیراز

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه شهرسازی، دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه شیراز، شیراز، ایران

2 کارشناسی ارشد برنامه‌ریزی شهری، دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه شیراز، شیراز، ایران

3 استاد گروه شهرسازی، دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه شیراز، شیراز، ایران.

4 استادیار گروه شهرسازی، دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه شیراز، شیراز، ایران.

چکیده

در بسیاری از شهرهای امروزی، محلات شهری با معضلات اجتماعی گوناگونی مواجه هستند که از مهم‌ترین آن‌ها می‌توان از فقدان امنیت اجتماعی نام برد. این مسئله از یک سو با ویژگی‌های اجتماعی و جمعیتی مرتبط بوده و از سوی دیگر، در ارتباطی انکارناپذیر با مکان قرار دارد. مطالعه بر روی مفاهیم مرتبط با جرم و جنایت در محیط شهری، غالباً در ذیل شاخه‌ای از علم جرم‌شناسی به نام جرم‌شناسی محیطی انجام می‌شود. در این حوزه با شناسایی روابط میان فرم شهر و امنیت محلات، تأثیر محیط پیرامونی بر میزان وقوع جرم مورد بررسی قرار می‌گیرد. هدف این مقاله، بررسی روابط میان تراکم و اختلاط کاربری، به‌عنوان اصلی‌ترین شاخص‌های فرم شهری، با میزان امنیت ادراکی ساکنان در مقیاس بلوک شهری در محلات شهر شیراز است. داده‌های این مطالعه از نتایج سرشماری نفوس و مسکن 1390، لایه‌های اطلاعات جغرافیایی و پرسشنامه‌های ساکنان گردآوری شده و سنجش شاخص‌ها از نوع کمی می‌باشد. شاخص امنیت ادراکی ساکنان بر اساس پنج متغیر: ترس از وقوع جرم، تجربه وقوع جرم، همسایگان قابل اعتماد، همبستگی اجتماعی و ناهنجاری‌ها، تعریف و مورد سنجش قرار می‌گیرد. بر اساس نتایج تحلیل واریانس یک‌طرفه، در متغیرهای ترس از وقوع جرم و تجربه وقوع جرم، تفاوت معناداری میان بلوک‌هایی که در دوره‌های مختلف زمانی (قبل از سال 1345، بین 1345 تا 1368 و بعد از آن) شکل گرفته‌اند وجود دارد. بدین صورت که در پهنه توسعه جدید میانگین این دو متغیر پایین‌تر از سایر نواحی می‌باشد. تحلیل روابط میان متغیرها بر اساس آزمون همبستگی پیرسون نیز نشان می‌دهد تجربه وقوع جرم با تراکم ساختمانی رابطه معکوس و با تراکم جمعیتی رابطه مستقیم دارد. همچنین وجود نسبت بیشتری از کاربری‌های غیرمسکونی در میان بلوک‌های مورد مطالعه، ارتباط مستقیمی با تجربه وقوع جرم و ترس از وقوع جرم در میان ساکنان را بیان می‌کند

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Relationship between Urban form and Perceived Security; An Empirical Analysis; Case Syudy: Shiraz City

نویسندگان [English]

  • Khalil Hajipour 1
  • Seyed Mojtaba Fakhrahmad 2
  • Ali Soltani 3
  • Sahand Lotfi 4
1 Assistant Professor of Urbanism, School of Art and Architecture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran
2 M.A. of Urban Planning, School of Art and Architecture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran.
3 Professor of Urbanism, School of Art and Architecture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran.
4 Assistant Professor of Urbanism, School of Art and Architecture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran.
چکیده [English]

In many of today’s cities, neighborhoods face a variety of social problems, the most important of which is the lack of social security. On the one hand, this is related to social and demographic characteristics and on the other hand, it is undeniably associated with place. The study of concepts related to urban crime is often carried out under a subfield of criminology called “environmental criminology”. In this area, the impact of the surroundings on crime rate is investigated by identifying the relationships between urban form and neighborhood security. The present study aims to investigate the relationship between the main aspects of urban form (density and land-use mix) and the level of security perceived by residents on the scale of an urban block in the neighborhoods of Shiraz Metropolitan. The data are collected from the 2011 Iranian Population and Housing Census report, Geographical Information System (GIS) databases and household questionnaire and quantitative indices. The perceived security indicator is defined and measured based on five variables: fear of crime, experience of crime occurrence, having trusted neighbors, social solidarity and incivilities. According to the results of one-way analysis of variance, there is a significant difference between blocks formed in different time periods (1966 backward, between 1966 and 1989 and from 1989 onwards) in “fear of crime” and “experience of crime occurrence” variables as in the newly developed neighborhoods, the averages of these two variables are less. So in the newly developed zone, the average of these two variables is lower than the other neighborhoods. The results of Pearson’s correlation test also indicate that the “experience of crime occurrence” variable is correlated with building density and population density inversely and directly, respectively. Moreover, the share of non-residential land-uses in the studied blocks is directly correlated with the experience of crime occurrence and the fear of crime among residents.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Urban Form
  • Perceived Security
  • Environmental criminology
  • Urban block
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