عنوان مقاله [English]
Reference frames (or frames of reference) show how the knowledge of object organization is formed in the environment by the physical movement of the person or the environmental conditions where the representation takes place. This paper examines the formation of reference frames in memory to represent the spatial structure of large-scale outdoor environments, due to the lack of consideration in the research background, the lack of attention to the scale of the formation of reference frames, and the lack of ecological validity in other studies. For this purpose, two types of tests are used in this paper to change the scale of the environment as well as pointing targets. In one test, familiar and unfamiliar participants are introduced to the positions of the three building triads, by walking the path that encompasses each group. Then, maps are presented to them along with the representation of these three groups in five different directions (0-180 degrees), and they judge whether each triple group is correctly represented based on the relative positions of the buildings. In another test, participants are introduced to the position of eight unknown objects in a pedestrian-oriented environment, moving in two pre-programmed and inscribed paths (one path aligned with the sidewalk and the other misaligned, at a 45-degree angle). Then, participants use their memory, pointing to objects as targets. In both tests, the dependent research variables are the pointing accuracy and the latency in responding to the examiners’ questions. The results show that the positions of unfamiliar buildings are subjectively represented as egocentric reference frames. The allocentric frame of reference is defined by the environment when the environment is familiar, and the representation also tends to allocentric, as humans become familiar with the environment. On the other hand, object positions are subjectively represented in regular environments and distinctive by the geocentric frame, but are selected based on egocentric experience.