تأثیر به‌کارگیری آموزش انتقادی در درس طراحی معماری بر انگیزش تحصیلی دانشجویان طرح معماری یک کارشناسی‌ارشد

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دکتری معماری، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه هنر اصفهان، اصفهان، ایران

2 دانشیار گروه معماری، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه علم و صنعت ایران، تهران، ایران

3 استادیار گروه معماری، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه هنر اصفهان، اصفهان، ایران

چکیده

انتخاب بهینه‌ترین شیوه آموزش همگام با هدف و زمینه موضوعی که آموزش داده می‌شود یکی از مسائلی است که در چند دهه گذشته مورد بررسی بسیاری از پژوهشگران رشته‌های مختلف قرار گرفته است. یکی از این مقوله‌ها، بحث در چگونگی به‌کارگیری شیوه آموزش انتقادی، به‌عنوان یکی از یادگیرنده محورترین شیوه‌های آموزشی است که بین دانشجویان و استاد، روابط نه بر اساس انتقال یک‌طرفه اطلاعات بلکه براساس تغییر در ساختار قدرت و تبادل همه جانبه اطلاعات بنا نهاده شده است. همخوانی این شیوه آموزشی مسئله محور با جوهره محیط‌های یادگیری کارگاه‌های معماری، امکان به‌کارگیری این روش آموزشی در کارگاه معماری طرح یک کارشناسی‌ارشد را متبادر نمود. بر این مبنا، پژوهش حاضر، با هدف بررسی تأثیر روش مذکور بر میزان انگیزش دانشجویان معماری در دروس عملی طراحی شد. دانشجویان طرح یک کارشناسی‌ارشد در دانشگاه آزاد گرگان به‌عنوان مورد مطالعاتی پژوهش انتخاب شدند. فرضیه پژوهش این بود که تأثیر آموزش انتقادی بر ایجاد انگیزش درونی در میان دانشجویان معماری در دروس طرح معنادار است. روش تحقیق حاضر توصیفی و روش تجزیه و تحلیل آمار، استنباطی بوده است. برای سنجش و مقایسه میزان انگیزش دانشجویان در دو حالت آموزش معمول و انتقادی از پرسشنامه استاندارد شده محیط‌های یادگیری حمایتگر دسی و رایان1 استفاده شد. این پرسشنامه بر مبنای نظریه انگیزش درونی دسی و رایان که سه معیار «خودمختاری»، «احساس کفایت» و «احساس تعلق» را در رشد انگیزش درونی اساسی می‌داند و مدل مفهومی تحقیق حاضر نیز بر مبنای آن‌ها تدوین و طراحی شده است. از آزمون T دو نمونه مستقل و با استفاده از نرم‌افزار SPSS برای مقایسه این دو روش در نمونه مورد مطالعه استفاده شده است. نتایج نشان دادند که روش آموزش انتقادی به‌طور قابل توجهی نسبت به روش معمول استاد- محور سطح بیشتری از انگیزش را در دانشجویان پدید می‌آورد

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Efficacy of Using Critical Pedagogy as a Teaching Method in Master’s Architectural Design Course (1) on Graduate Students’ Motivation

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sohrab Sardashti 1
  • Farhang Mozaffar 2
  • Minoo Shafaie 3
1 Ph.D. of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Art University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran
2 Associate professor of Architecture, School of Architecture and Environmental Design, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran
3 Assistant professor of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Art University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran
چکیده [English]

Choosing the optimal teaching method appropriate to the purpose and field of the subject is one of the issues that have been discussed by many researchers of various fields over the past few decades. Critical pedagogy is one of the most learner-centered teaching method, according to which the relationship between the professor and students is not made based on the one-sided transfer of information, but also on changes in the power-sharing and the mutual exchange of information. Consistency of this problem-based teaching method with the essence of learning environments of architectural workshops made it possible to apply this teaching method in master’s architectural design course (1). Accordingly, the present study aims to evaluate students’ intrinsic motivation under the circumstances of the critical education method. To this end, 24 graduate students of Islamic Azad University of Gorgan attending the architectural design course (1) are chosen as samples. The research hypothesis is that the critical pedagogy significantly affects the internal motivation of architectural students attending the design courses. This study is descriptive research carried out using inferential statistics. To compare the effectiveness of the two conventional teaching method and critical pedagogy on students’ intrinsic motivation, Deci & Ryan’s learning climate questionnaire is used. This questionnaire is based on Deci and Ryan’s “Self-Determination Theory”, which knows the three criteria of “autonomy”, “competence” and “relatedness” necessary in the development of intrinsic motivation. Moreover, the research conceptual model is designed and developed based on these criteria. Then, the data are analyzed using independent sample t-test and SPSS software. The results showed that the critical pedagogy produced a higher level of intrinsic motivation in students than the conventional teacher-centered educational method.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Critical Pedagogy
  • intrinsic motivation
  • Autonomy
  • Architectural Design Course
 

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