نقش تزیینات در بازیابی هویت ایرانی– اسلامی در جداره‌های شهری مورد مطالعاتی: راسته تاریخی بالا و پایین خیابان شهر مشهد

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 پژوهشگر دکتری معماری، دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

2 دانشیار گروه معماری، دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

3 مربی گروه هنر، دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد آزادشهر، گلستان، ایران

چکیده

در ایران به دلیل تقابلی که در دهه‌های اخیر بین سنت‌های ایرانی، فرهنگ اسلامی و مدرنیته شدن پدید آمد همواره این پرسش مطرح بوده است که جایگاه فرهنگ بومی و ارزش‌های دینی ما کجاست و معماری و شهرسازی که مصداق بارز تجلی این ارزش‌ها هستند چگونه باید عمل کنند؟ در این بین نقش نماهای شهری به‌عنوان بخشی از منظر شهری که منتقل کننده مفاهیم فرهنگی و تحکیم هویت شهری می‌باشند و نیز تزیینات اسلامی که در گذشته جزیی جدایی‌ناپذیر از کالبد شهر و معماری بوده است، بسیار حائز اهمیت است. این جستار بر آن است تا با روش تحقیق توصیفی- تحلیلی، بر اساس مطالعات میدانی به صورت مشاهده مستقیم و حضور نگارندگان در بالا و پایین خیابان و مبتنی بر مطالعات اسنادی و مرور متون و منابع تاریخی و تجارب و تحلیل آن‌ها، به بررسی جایگاه تزیینات اسلامی در نماهای شهری با استفاده از روش تطبیقی- مقایسه‌ای بپردازد و نقش آن‌ها را در تقویت هویت ایرانی- اسلامی مورد مداقه قرار دهد. در این بین جداره‌های تاریخی بالا و پایین خیابان در انطباق با مبانی نظری پژوهش مورد بررسی قرار گرفت و از نظر رنگ، مصالح، نوع تزیین و مکان کاربرد طبقه‌بندی شدند سپس نقش این جداره‌ها بر مبنای شاخص‌های فرهنگ اسلامی اعم از اعتقادی، زندگی اجتماعی، ارزش‌های بومی در تحکیم هویت ایرانی- اسلامی مورد مداقه قرار گرفت. از ارزیابی مطالعات حاصله نتیجه می‌شود که تزیینات جداره‌های مذکور که تماماً دو طبقه و با خط آسمانی نسبتاً صاف هستند، از تزیینات هندسی کاشیکاری معرق و معقلی به همراه آجرکاری به‌طور عمده در بخش بالایی استفاده شده است و این تزیینات ایرانی- اسلامی نقش قابل توجهی در احیای ابعاد مختلف ارزش‌های فرهنگ اسلامی در جداره‌ها و منظر شهری دارند

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Role of Ornamentations in Retrieving Iranian-Islamic Identity of Urban Façades; Case Study: Mashhad’s Bala and Paein Khiaban Historical Axes

نویسندگان [English]

  • Maryam Talaei 1
  • Mojtaba Ansari 2
  • Fatemeh Dorjvar 3
1 Ph.D. Candidate of Architecture, Faculty of Art and Architecture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
2 Associate Professor of Architecture, Faculty of Art and Architecture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
3 Instructor of Architecture, Faculty of Art and Architecture, Islamic Azad University, Azadshahr Branch, Golestan, Iran
چکیده [English]

Due to the contradiction emerged between Iranian traditions, Islamic culture and modernization in recent decays, the following questions have been raised; where is the position of our indigenous culture and religious values? And how should architecture and urbanism, which are the explicit expression of such values behave? Meanwhile, urban facades, as part of the cityscape, which convey the cultural concepts and stabilize the urban identity, as well as Islamic ornamentations, which were inseparable parts of the architecture and city in past, play a key role in this regard. The present study is descriptive-analytical research which is carried out using field studies in form of direct observation, as well as library studies. This research evaluates the position of Islamic ornaments of the urban façade using an adaptive-comparative method and scrutinizes their roles in stabilizing the Iranian-Islamic identity. Hence, the historical facades of Bala and Paein Khiaban alleys are studied in terms of colour, material, types of ornamentation, and the location on the façade. Then, the role of these façades in stabilizing Iranian-Islamic identityis evaluated based on the Indicators of Islamic Culture including beliefs, social life, and indigenous values. The results show that the ornaments of the mentioned facades, which are all two-story with the flat skyline, are mainly geometrical ones. The applied materials are brick as well as Moaghelli and Moarragh tiling mostly used in the upper part of the building facade. These ornaments play a noticeable role in retrieving various aspects of Islamic values in urban facades and cityscape.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • ornaments
  • Iranian-Islamic Identity
  • Urban Facades
  • cityscape
  • Bala and Paein khiaban
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