تدوین و ارزیابی راهبردهای طراحانه به منظور ارتقاء کیفیت پیاده‌راه‌های سلامت‌محور با استفاده از ماتریس QSPM، مورد مطالعاتی: پیاده‌راه سلامت شیراز

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه شهرسازی، دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه شیراز، شیراز، ایران

2 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد طراحی شهری، دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه شیراز، شیراز، ایران

چکیده

پیاده‌راه‌های سلامت‌محور شهری که در ایران قدمت چندان زیادی ندارند، یکی از انواع فضاهای شهری هستند که با هدف ارتقاء سلامت عمومی شهروندان از طریق افزایش فعالیت بدنی و تشویق به ورزش در شهرها ایجاد می‌شوند. هدف از این پژوهش تدوین راهبردهای طراحی به منظور ارتقاء کیفیت این دسته از پیاده‌راه‌ها است. در این پژوهش، جمع‌آوری داده‌ها به دو روش مطالعات اسنادی و مصاحبه نیمه‌ساختاریافته و نیز به کمک پرسشنامه انجام پذیرفته و برای تحلیل داده‌ها از جدول تحلیل راهبردی عوامل داخلی و خارجی و ماتریس QSPM استفاده شده است. مورد مطالعاتی، «پیاده‌راه سلامت شیراز» به عنوان اولین پیاده‌راه سلامت‌محور این شهر بوده است. جامعه آماری، 35 نفر از کارشناسان شهرداری و دانشجویان مقطع کارشناسی و کارشناسی‌ارشد رشته شهرسازی هستند که در مرحله اول، نقاط قوت، ضعف، تهدید و فرصت مسیر پیاده‌راه سلامت پس از انجام مصاحبه‌های نیمه‌ساختاریافته، به کمک آن‌ها شناسایی و در مرحله دوم پس از دسته‌بندی موضوعات، از طریق پرسشنامه بسته با طیف لیکرت، به کمک جداول ارزیابی عوامل داخلی و خارجی  EFE و IFE اولویت‌بندی شده است. بررسی این جداول، «راهبردهای انطباقی» را به عنوان مهم‌ترین راهبردها در ارتقاء کیفی مسیر نشان داد. پس از این دو مرحله، به کمک ماتریس QSPM اولویت‌بندی راهبردهای انطباقی به منظور سامان‌دهی این پیاده‌راه صورت پذیرفت. یافته‌های حاصل از این پژوهش نشان می‌دهد، بهره‌برداری از فرصت هم‌جواری این مسیر با عوامل طبیعی در قالب دو راهبرد؛ «فضاسازی مناسب در حاشیه رودخانه به منظور بهره‌برداری بصری و زیست‌محیطی مسیر از هم‌جواری با رودخانه» و «جداره‌سازی مناسب در حاشیه باغات قصردشت به منظور بهره‌برداری بصری و زیست‌محیطی از هم‌جواری با پهنه‌های سبز»،  از دید کارشناسان، مهم‌ترین راهبردهای انطباقی به منظور ارتقاء کیفی پیاده‌راه سلامت شیراز و ترغیب مردم به افزایش فعالیت بدنی و پیاده‌روی در این مسیر است

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Design Strategies for Improving the Quality of Urban Trails; Using QSPM Matrix; Case Study: Shiraz Health Trail

نویسندگان [English]

  • Maryam Roosta 1
  • Kosar Hassanzade 2
1 Assistant Professor of Urban Design, School of Art and Architecture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran
2 M.A. Student of Urban Design, School of Art and Architecture, Shiraz University, Shiraz,
چکیده [English]

Urban trails, which are not very old in Iran, are a type of urban spaces created with the aim of promoting the general health of citizens by increasing physical activity and encouraging to take exercises in cities. The current research aims to develop design strategies in line with enhancing the quality of such walkways. In the present study, data are collected using second desk study and semi-structured interview as well as questionnaires. To analyze the data, the strategic analysis of the internal and external factors as well as QSPM Matrix are applied. The case study was the “Health” Trail in Shiraz as the first health-oriented walkway in the city. The study population included 35 municipality experts and urban planning students. In the first stage, the strengths, weaknesses, threats and opportunities of the “Health” walkway were identified after performing a semi-structured interview with the study population. In the second stage, the themes were categorized and subsequently prioritized through a closed Likert-based questionnaire assisted by the tables of internal (IFE) and external (EFE) factors. The study of the tables shows the conservative strategies as the most important strategies for the promotion of the quality of walkway. After these two stages, the conservative strategies were prioritized using QSPM matrix to organize the walkway. The findings show that having an opportunity of  being in the proximity to natural factors as two strategies, i.e. “making an appropriate space on the side of the river for visual and environmental enjoyment of being proximity to the river” and “constructing suitable walls in the periphery of gardens in Qasr e Dasht for visual and environmental enjoyment of being proximity to green spaces”, are the most important conservative strategies for promoting the quality of Shiraz’s Health trail and encouraging people to do more physical activities on this trail

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Health-Oriented Trail
  • Urban Space
  • Design Strategy
Alimardani, M., Mohammadi, M., & Zibaee Farimani N. (2018). The Effect of Place Attachment- Walking- on Health Issue at Neighborhood Level, Case Study: Motahary Neighborhood in Mashhad City, Armanshahr Architecture & Urban Development Journal, 21, 193-204. http://www.armanshahrjournal.com/article_58608_en.html

Bahraini, S.H., & Khosravi, H. (2009). Physical and Spatial Features of Built Environment which have Impact on Walking, Health Status and Body Fitness. HONAR-HA- YE-ZIBA. 43(2), 5-16. https://jfaup.ut.ac.ir/?_action=article&au=117670&_au=%D8%AD%D8%B3%DB%8C%D9%86++%D8%AE%D8%B3%D8%B1%D9%88%DB%8C

Ball, K., Bauman, A., Leslie, E., & Owen, N. (2001). Perceived Environmental Aesthetics and Convenience, and Company are Associated with Walking for Exercise among Australian Adults. Preventive Medicine, 33(5), 434–40. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0091743501909120

Boer, R., Zheng, Y., Overton, A., Ridgeway, GK., & Cohen, D.A. (2007). Neighborhood Design and Walking Trips in Ten U.S. Metropolitan Areas. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 32(4), 298 –304. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0749379706005605?casa_token=skQesXD4I_EAAAAA:AzNQUNcmXsm5WsLcZln5xY_Tz_wVftGd5j5eJ-la_tpqrKrWhxbUBBFeewQ30MbGXunUvVqDEA

Carvalho Vieira, M., Sperandei, S., Reis, A., Da Silva, C., & Gonçalves, T. (2013). An Analysis of the Suitability of Public Spaces to Physical Activity Practice in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Preventive Medicine, 57(3), 198–200. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0091743513001862?casa_token=r-xAUj5AO5UAAAAA:w2isHCargRy-iyv3M6vD1dBdbcEiyYe_WCA9zNAxxST4LAkOX06xfGmQL3CrlmOAYzP5_IQLkA 

CDCP (Center for Disease Control and Prevention). (1999). Neighborhood Safety and the Prevalence of Physical Inactivity_ Selected States,1996. Mor Mortal Wkly Rep,48(7), 143-146. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10077460

Chiesura, A. (2004). The Role of Urban Parks for the Sustainable City. Landscape and Urban Planning, 68(1), 129-138. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169204603001865

De Vries, S., Verheij, R.A., Groenewegen, P.P., & Spreeuwenberg, P. (2003). Natural Environments Healthy Environments? An Exploratory Analysis of the Relationship between Greenspace and Health. Environment and Planning A, 35(10), 1717-1731. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1068/a35111 

Grimwade, R., Horner, B., & Everhart, G.S. (2009). Trails Design Guidelines for Portland Park System, Portland Parks and Recreation, https://www.portlandoregon.gov/parks/38306?a=250105

Golkar, K. (2005). Tailoring SWOT Analytical Technique to Urban Design Practice. Soffeh Journal, 15(41), 44-64. https://www.sid.ir/En/Journal/ViewPaper.aspx?ID=70615

Hakimiyan, P. (2012). The Health Dimension of Urban Design. Soffeh Journal, 22(1), 87-100. https://www.magiran.com/paper/1719973?lang=en

Hakimiyan, P. (2016). The Role of Perceptual Qualities of Urban Design in Physical Activity of Residents of the Neighborhood, Case Study; Saadatabad and Qods Area of Tehran. Soffeh Journal. 26 (1), 87-107. http://sofeh.sbu.ac.ir/article/view/17097 

Handy, SL., Boarnet, M.G., Ewing, R., & Killingsworth, R.E. (2002). How the Built Environment Affects Physical Activity: Views from Urban Planning. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 23(2), 64 –73. https://www.ajpmonline.org/article/S0749-3797(02)00475-0/fulltext

Hoehner, C., Brennan, L., Brownson, R., Handy, S., & Killingsworth, R. (2003). Opportunities for Integrating Public Health and Urban Planning Approaches to Promote Active Community Environments. American Journal of Health Promotion, 18(1), 14-20. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.4278/0890-1171-18.1.14 

Humpel, N., Owen, N., & Leslie, E. (2002). Environmental Factors Associated with Adults’ Participation in Physical Activity. A Review. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 22(3), 188 –99. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0749379701004263?casa_token=ZOL4YEQslnUAAAAA:aquTKoew0cKoAbfa4QGlz0kQF9VttqNXE0yI-WE2VEwyz1ywAMMqFMr3VXc94bhLhB22r3s1aw

Humpel, N., Owen, N., Iverson, D., Leslie, E., & Bauman, A. (2004) .Perceived Environment Attributes, Residential Location, and Walking for Particular Purposes. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 26(2) ,119-125. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0749379703003155?casa_token=Rp1wZ1AzIVYAAAAA:e4obkhLtanmiSt7OZQjRZNEdhkjFcQ2agKW8hJBpGp9maz8Wm6NyWmAyxjb5k_XlwaWXXpErPA

Krizek, K.J. (2011). Residential Relocation and Changes in Urban Travel: Does Neighborhood-Scale Urban Form Matter? Journal of the American Planning Association, 69(3), 265–81. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01944360308978019

Krizek, K.J., & Johnson, P.J. (2006). The Effect of Neighborhood Trails and Retail on Cycling and Walking in an Urban Environment. Journal of the American Planning Association, 72(1), 33– 42. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01944360608976722

Lennon, M., Dauglas,O., & Scott, M. (2017). Urban Green Space for Health and Well-Being: Developing an ‘Affordances’ Framework for Planning and Design. Journal of Urban Design, 22(6), 778-795. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13574809.2017.1336058?scroll=top&needAccess=true&journalCode=cjud20

Ord, K., Mitchell, R., & Pearce, J. (2013). Is Level of Neighbourhood Green Space Associated with Physical Activity in Green Space? International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 10(1), 1–8. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/1479-5868-10-127

Owen, N., Humple, N., Leslie, E., & Bauman, A. (2004). Understanding Environmental Influences on Walking Review and Research Agenda. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 27(1), 67-76. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15212778

OTF (Ontario Trillium Foundation). (2006). Ontario’s Best Trails; Guidelines and Best Practices for the Design, Construction and Maintenance of Sustainable Trails for All Ontarians. https://www.recpro.org/assets/Library/Trails/ontario_guidelines_bmp_design_construction_maintenance_sustainable_trails.pdf

Pikora, T., Bull, F., & Jamrozik, K. (2002). Developing a Reliable Audit Instrument to Measure the Physical Environment for Physical Activity. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 23(3), 187–194. https://www.ajpmonline.org/article/S0749-3797(02)00498-1/abstract

Razavi, S.M.H., & Azimi, A. (2014). A Study of Exterior Landscaping Criteria in the Design and Construction of Urban Sports Centers. Sport Management & Development, 3(1), 15-24. https://jsmd.guilan.ac.ir/article_724_en.html

Renalds, A., Smith, T.H., & Hale, P.J. (2010). A Systematic Review of Built Environment and Health. Family and Community Health, 33(1), 68–78. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20010006

Reynolds, K., Wolch, J., Byrne, J., Chou Feng, G., Weaver, S., & Jerrett, M. (2007). Trail Characteristics as Correlates of Urban Trail Use. American Journal of Health Promotion, 21(4), 335-345. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17465179 

Rakhshaninasab, H., & Rashidian, M. (2017). An Analysis on the Status of Sport’s Furniture in Increasing the Vitality of Urban Spaces Case study: Nourabad of Mamasani. Geography and Development Iranian Journal, 15(46), 101-116. http://gdij.usb.ac.ir/article_3047_en.html

Razzaghi, S., Alimardani, M., & Zibaee, N. (2014). Identifying the Impact of Design Factors on Improving Pedestrian Health, the Case of “Motahary Neighborhood” in Mashhad. Journal of Urban Studies, 10(3), 27-36. http://urbstudies.uok.ac.ir/article_8764_en.html 

Sallis, J.F., Johnson, M.F., Calfas, K.J., Caparosa, S., & Nichols, J.F. (1997). Assessing Perceived Physical Environmental Variables that May Influence Physical Activity. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 68(4), 345–351. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02701367.1997.10608015