بررسی مسکن از دیدگاه نشانه‌شناسی، مورد مطالعاتی: خانه‌های دوره‌ی قاجار و مجتمع‌های مسکونی معاصر در شهر شیراز

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترای معماری، گروه معماری، واحد شیراز، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی ، شیراز، ایران

2 استادیار گروه معماری، واحد شیراز، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی ، شیراز، ایران

3 استادیارگروه معماری، واحد شیراز، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی ، شیراز، ایران

چکیده

دغدغه ایجاد کیفیت مطلوب در فضای معماری همیشه مورد توجه معماران و پژوهشگران این عرصه بوده‌است و توجه آن‌ها را به مفاهیم و نظریه‌های زبانی به لحاظ فلسفی و نظریه‌ای جلب کرده است. لیکن نشانه‌شناسی به‌عنوان ابزاری جهت تحلیل و ارزیابی هویت در طراحی مسکن کم‌تر مورد توجه قرار گرفته است. خانه مکانی است که افراد بیش‌ترین تعلق را در آن احساس کرده و بیش‌ترین زمان را در آن سپری می‌کنند، به همین جهت شناخت مفاهیم عمیق آن می‌تواند به خلق محیطی مطلوب منجر شود. بسیاری از نیازهایی که از یک خانه انتظار می‌رود بر اساس نیازهای انسان در دوره‌های مختلف شکل می‌گیرد. این پژوهش با در نظر گرفتن دو دوره تاریخی قاجار و معاصر در شهر شیراز، خانه را به مثابه متنی می‌پندارد که از لایه‌های مختلفی تشکیل شده و با بررسی رویکردهای نشانه‌شناسی می‌توان به تأثیر این لایه‌ها بر معماری خانه و دریافت معانی عناصر و فضاهای مختلف خانه دست‌یافت. لذا با توجه به مطالعات انجام شده در خصوص نشانه‌شناسی، ابتدا به تشریح مفاهیم نشانه‌شناسی پرداخت شده، داده‌ها و نظریه‌های مرتبط با این مبحث گردآوری شده و سپس در یک سیستم معماری جهت ایجاد مدل مفهومی از نشانه‌شناسی و در راستای خوانش هر اثر معماری تعریف شده‌است، سپس خانه‌های دوره قاجار و مجتمع‌های مسکونی معاصر بر اساس مدل مذکور تحلیل شده است. روش تحقیق به صورت ترکیبی از نوع کیفی-کمی بوده است و نتایج پژوهش حاصل از بررسی کتابخانه‌ای و اسنادی و بررسی پرسشنامه‌ها و تحلیل مصاحبه‌ها، نشان از چگونگی اثر عناصر معماری تأثیر پذیرفته از لایه معماری و فرامعماری در دو دوره تاریخی بر معانی دریافت شده توسط کاربران دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation of Housing from A Semiotic Perspective; Case Study: Qajar Houses and Contemporary Residential Complexes in Shiraz

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sara Berahman 1
  • Mohammad Parva 2
  • Tahereh Nasr 3
1 Ph.D. student of Architecture, Department of Architecture, Shiraz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shiraz, Iran.
2 Assistant Professor of Architecture, Shiraz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shiraz, Iran
3 Assistant Professor of Architecture, Shiraz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shiraz, Iran.
چکیده [English]

The creation of high quality architectural space has always been the concern of architects and researchers of this field and directed their attention to the lingual concepts and theories in terms of philosophical and theoretical dimensions. However, as an instrument for analyzing and evaluating the identity, semiotics has been less frequently applied for housing design. A house is a place where in the individuals feel the most sense of belonging and spend most of their time. For the same reason, knowing its subtle concepts can lead to the creation of a favorable environment. Many of the needs expected from a house are formed based on the human needs in various periods. Considering the two Qajar and contemporary periods in Shiraz, in the present study, the house is supposed as a texture composed of various layers and it is attempted to use a semiotic approach to make it possible to understand the effects of these layers on the house architecture as well as the meanings of various elements and spaces of the house. Accordingly, considering the studies on semiotics, first, the concept of semiotics is described, the relevant data and theories are gathered, and then, applied in an architectural system to create a conceptual model of semiology for reading each architectural work.; afterwards, the Qajar houses and the contemporary residential complexes are analyzed based on the foresaid model. This research is a mixed method research in which data are collected using library study, questionnaire and interview. The results of this study indicate how the architectural elements influenced by the architectural and meta-architectural layers in the two studied periods influence the meanings perceived by users.Therefore, according to studies on semiotics, the concept of semiology has described, the data and theories related to this topic were first collected and then defined in an architectural system to create a conceptual model of semiology for reading each architectural work. Then the houses of the Qajar period and contemporary residential complexes have been analysed based on above model. The research method is a combined one of qualitative - quantitative type. The results of the study concluded through library and documentary research, and investing questionnaire and analysing interviews, shows how the elements of architecture that affected by architectural and meta-architectural layer in these two historical periods influence the meanings understood by users.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Semiotics
  • Housing
  • Meaning
  • traditional houses
  • Residential Complexes
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