مردم: «فرا معیار درونی» موفقیت طرح‏ها (مرور سه دهه و نیم طرح‏های شهری تهران از دهه 1360 شمسی)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

دانشیار گروه شهرسازی، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد تهران مرکزی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

مفاهیمی مانند هدف، موفقیت، روش، معیار، دیدگاه‏ مخاطب، زمینه فرهنگی، مقیاس و نوع طرح، از مواردی است که نقد و ارزیابی کیفیت طرح‏های‏ شهری را پیچیده‏‏ ساخته‏است. پرسش این مقاله یافتن مهم‌ترین معیارهای بیرونی یا درونی موفقیت طرح‏های‏شهری اجرا‏شد‏‏‏‏‏ه در تهران طی 35 سال از دهه 1360 است. بنابراین، روش دلفی جهت کسب اجماع خبرگان شهری به‌کاررفته است. برای این منظور از اجماع چهل نفر از متخصصان شهری در زمینه‏های طراحی ‏شهری‏‏‏، برنامه‏ریزی، مدیریت، معماری و جامعه‏شناسی بهره‏گرفته‏شده‏است. این مقاله با روش اجماع نظر خبرگان و رویکرد نقد نوین برآمده از «نظریه نقد»، به‏‏دنبال این پرسش است که به اعتبار این اتفاق‏نظر معیار اصلی موفقیت این طرح‏ها چه بوده‏است؟ هر‏‏‏‏‏‏‏چند در خصوص شکست طرح‏های ‏شهری به‏ویژه در تهران اتفاق‏نظری مشترک هست، اما گزارش بی‏طرف در خصوص متخصصان هم‏رأیی در معیارهای طرح‏های شایسته و موفق کمتر تهیه‏شده‏است. آگاهی از چنین موضوعی می‏تواند علاوه بر معرفی، ایجاد انگیزه، تشویق و ترسیم نگرش مثبت یا تدوین چشم‏انداز تقریبی از کارنامه فعالان شهری در چند دهه اخیر، سبب روشن‏تر شدن و هدایت تصمیم‏های آتی با توجه به معیارهای ‏موفقیت شود. این امر همچنین می‏تواند منجر به بررسی روش‏های ارزیابی کیفی طرح‏های‏شهری شود. از نتایج به‌دست ‏آمده این است که فرض معیار ثابت برای ارزیابی آثار صحیح نبوده و ارزیابی امری پویاست. درعین‏حال، معیارهای «فرآیندگرا»، «فرآورده‏گرا»، «بیرونی» و «درونی» تمیز داده و روشن‏شده‏است که «خواست و مشارکت مردم» در طرح‏ها معیار اصلی است که بیش از هر‏‏‏‏‏‏‏ عامل دیگر سبب پیروزی طرح خواهدشد. بعد این معیار، «جنبه‏های مدیریتی و فنی» و سپس «کیفیت اثر طراحی» سبب موفقیت طرح می‏شود. معیار مردمی در سایر معیارها نیز نهفته است و بنابراین فرامعیار درونی موفقیت طرح‏هاست، گرچه در طرح‏های شهری تهران، بیرون از فرآیند ‏طراحی مانده‏است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Common People: "Internal Meta-Criterion" for Successful Plans (Review of Tehran's Urban Design Projects Implemented in Three and a Half Decades Since the 1980s)

نویسنده [English]

  • Mahmud Rezaei
Associate Professor of Urban Planning, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Islamic Azad University, Central Tehran Branch, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Concepts such as goal, success, method, criterion, perspective, cultural context, scale, and plan type include the conditions that have made the quality assessment of urban projects so complicated. The present study aims to find the most important external or internal criteria for successful urban design projects implemented in Tehran for 35 years since the 1980s. Therefore, the Delphi method is used to achieve a consensus on the research topic among urban experts. To this end, forty experts in urban design, urban planning, urban management, architecture, and sociology fields are asked. With the consensus of experts and using the new criticism approach, derived from "Theory of Criticism", this article thus attempts to find the major criterion for the successful projects. Although a clear common ground on the failure of urban design projects might retrieve from extensive literature about Tehran's development plans during recent years, little research has been conducted on its successful implemented plans or their criteria. The awareness of such a plans, not only reports or increases the plans' motivations in recent decades but also may drive future decisions based on the criteria for successful plans. This can also result in the study of qualitative methods using for the evaluation of urban design projects. The research results show that assuming a fixed criterion for evaluating the effects of urban design projects is insufficient as assessment works more dynamically. Furthermore, the "process-oriented", "product-oriented", "external" and "internal" criteria are distinguished in this research and it is found that consideration of "public participation and people needs" in plans plays the most important role in the success of plans, followed by "organizational and technical aspects" and "quality of the design", respectively. The public participation criterion is also latent in other criteria, therefore, it is an internal meta-criterion for successful plans. However, in Tehran's urban design projects, it is left out of the design process.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Internal Meta-Criteria
  • People
  • Success Criteria in the Design Process
  • Criticism and Urban Design Project Evaluation
  • Tehran
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