بررسی آلودگی‌های بصری- ‌روانی ساختمان‌های بلند از طریق تصاویر چشم ماهی و نظر شهروندان، مورد مطالعاتی: برج پاستور و جهان‌نمای همدان

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد گروه معماری، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه تربیت دبیر شهیدرجایی، تهران، ایران.

2 دانشیار گروه معماری، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه تربیت دبیر شهیدرجایی، تهران، ایران.

3 دانشیار گروه معماری، دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه بوعلی سینا، همدان، ایران.

4 دانشجوی دوره دکتری معماری، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه شهید رجایی، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

بلند‌‌‌‌مرتبه‌سازی و پژوهش‌های مرتبط با این بنا‌ها بر تأثیرات گوناگون این عناصر مهم بصری در شهرها تأکید داشته، اما تأثیرات روانی این بناها و از جمله فشار روانی تحمیلی از سوی این بناها بر شهروندان، کم‌تر مورد توجه بوده است. در کنکاش حاضر فشار روانی تحمیلی از سوی ساختمان‌های بلندمرتبه مورد بررسی قرار گرفت، موضوعی که در صورت انجام مطالعات دقیق، می‌تواند بر مقررات بلندمرتبه‌سازی در معابر و ارتقاء سلامت روان شهروندان تأثیرگذار باشد. بدین منظور دو مطالعه صورت گرفت: در بخش اول تحقیق، فشار روانی تحمیلی از سوی برج شبیه‌سازی شده پاستور و تغییرات قواره آن، از طریق تصاویر چشم ماهی، با آستانه تحمل فشار روانی از سوی شهروندان (نتایج مطالعات پیشین) مقایسه تطبیقی شد. در بخش دوم تحقیق نیز، با شبیه‌سازی برج جهان‌نما در شهر همدان، فشار روانی ادراکی ناشی از ساختمان‌هایی با وزن‌های بصری 6، 7، 8 (آستانه تحمل فشار روانی در مطالعات گذشته)، 9 و 10 درصد و تأثیر درختان بر فشار روانی (از نظر شهروندان) مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. نتایج  بخش اول گویای آن بود که درختان پوشاننده نمای برج مدل‌سازی شده پاستور در خیابان میرزاده عشقی، فشار روانی ناشی از برج را کاهش و در محدوده تحمل شهروندان قرار داده‌است، اما فشار روانی تحمیلی این برج (مدل‌سازی شده) از معبر پاستور زیاد و تهدیدی بر سلامت روان شهروندان است. نتایج بخش دوم نیز، نشان داد که ساختمان‌هایی با وزن‌های بصری 9 و 10 درصد با بیش‌ترین میزان فشار روانی و کم‌ترین میزان گشایش فضایی و خوشایندی همراه بوده، در حالی که ساختمانی با وزن بصری 7 درصد، با گشایش فضایی، خوشایندی و احتمال احیاگری بیشتری ادراک شده است. همچنین، با افزایش تعداد درختان مقابل ساختمان، فشار روانی کاهش یافته و میزان گشایش فضایی، خوشایندی، ترجیح‌پذیری و احتمال احیاگری منظره افزایش یافته‌است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigating the Visual-Psychological Pollution of Tall Buildings through Fish Eye Images and Citizen's Opinion; Case Study: Pastor and Jahannama Tower in Hamadan

نویسندگان [English]

  • Esmaeil Zarghami 1
  • Abdolhamid Ghanbaran 2
  • Mehrdad Karimimoshaver 3
  • Pooria SaadatiVaghar 4
1 Professor of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture and Urbanism, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Tehran, Iran
2 Associate Professor of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture and Urbanism, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Tehran, Iran.
3 Associate Professor of Architecture, Faculty of Art and Architecture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran.
4 Ph.D. Candidate of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture and Urbanism, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

High-rise construction and the studies relevant to these buildings emphasize the various impacts of these visual elements in the cities. However, the psychological effects of these buildings, including the sense of oppression that citizens endure, have been neglected. In the present study, the sense of oppression that citizens endure from these tall buildings was studied. If this subject is studied carefully, it can be influential in the regulations of the tall building construction in the paths and the improvement of the psychological health of the citizens. Therefore, two studies were conducted; in the first part of the research, the sense of oppression inducing from the simulated Pastor Tower and changes in its configuration through the fisheye images were comparatively compared with the tolerance of the sense of oppression enduring by the citizens (the results of the previous studies). In the second part of the research, through the simulation of the Jahan Nama tower in Hamedan City, the perceptual oppression resulted from the buildings with the visual weights of 6%, 7%, 8% (the tolerance of the sense of oppression in the previous studies), 9%, and 10% and the effect of the trees on the mental oppression (in citizens’ perspective) were investigated. The results of the first part indicated that the trees covering the façade of the simulated Pastor tower in the Mirzadeh Eshghi Street reduced the mental oppression resulted from the tower and is tolerated by the citizens. However, the mental oppression induced by this tower (simulated) from Pastor Avenue is high and a threat to the psychological health of the citizens. The results of the second part also indicated that the buildings with visual weights of 9% and 10% had the maximum mental oppression and the minimum openness and pleasantness. In contrast, the building with the visual weight of 7% was perceived with more openness, pleasantness, and likelihood of restoration. Moreover, by increasing the number of trees in front of the building, the mental oppression was reduced and the openness, pleasantness, preference, and the likelihood of the restoration of the landscape were increased.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Sense of Oppression
  • Fisheye Images
  • solid angle
  • Citizens’ Perception
  • Permissible Value of Sense of Oppression
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