سنجش معنای خصوصیات مسکن با بهره‌گیری از روش ساختار معانی، مورد مطالعاتی: مسکن مهر اندیشه (پیله سحران) اردبیل

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری معماری، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه علم و صنعت ایران، تهران، ایران.

2 دانشیار گروه معماری، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه علم و صنعت ایران، تهران، ایران

3 دانشیار گروه معماری، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه علم و صنعت ایران، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

ابعاد کمی مسکن مدت‌ها مورد توجه طراحان و سیاست‌گذاران مسکن گروه کم‌درآمد بوده است. این مسأله در حالی است که توجه به ابعاد کیفی و نقش ساکنان در تعیین این ابعاد در بسیاری از مطالعات مورد غفلت واقع شده است. هم‌شکلی مسکن در نقاط مختلف، ساخت مسکن حداقلی تیپ بدون توجه به تفاوت‌های فرهنگی و جایگزینی موضوعات اقتصادی به جای توجه به کیفیت‌های زندگی، گویای کم‌ترین توجه به ابعاد کیفی مسکن این گروه‌های فرهنگی می‌باشد. یکی از مفاهیم کیفی که مورد توجه محققان مسکن قرار گرفته است، «معنای مسکن» از دید ساکنان و شناسایی مؤلفه‌های تعریف‌کننده آن در حوزه مطالعات محیط- رفتار است. با توجه به اهمیت معنا در شکل‌گیری ارتباط میان فرد و محیط مصنوع، پژوهش حاضر روابط فرد با خصوصیات معنادار محیط را مورد توجه قرار می‌دهد و به ارزیابی معنای مسکن از طریق شناسایی معنای خصوصیات فضای داخلی مسکن و رابطه افراد با آن خصوصیات می‌پردازد. به این منظور مطالعه‌ای موردی در پروژه 168 واحدی مسکن مهر اندیشه شهر اردبیل صورت گرفت. در این مطالعه از روش «ساختار معانی» به‌عنوان رویکردی از پژوهش کیفی با تکنیک‌های عکس‌برداری، مشاهده میدانی و مصاحبه نیمه‌ساختار یافته نردبانی استفاده شد. چارچوب مفهومی پژوهش تحت مدل وسیله- هدف گاتمن (1982) و سطوح معانی راپاپورت (1988)، پیامدها و معانی حاکم بر خصوصیات را در قالب گزاره‌های «خصوصیت، کارکرد آشکار، کارکرد پنهان» تشریح می‌نماید. برای اطمینان از دریافت اطلاعات لازم، مفهوم اشباع نظری تعیین‌کننده تعداد نمونه‌ها، مصاحبه‌ها و دریافت داده‌ها بود. بر اساس نمودار ساختار زنجیره‌ای ارزش، خصوصیات مسکن به‌طور عمده تحت تأثیر معنی «زندگی لذت‌بخش» قرار دارند. پیامدهای دیگر، معانی همچون «روابط اجتماعی»، «استقلال»، «خلوت» و «پیوند با طبیعت» را در مسکن مهیا می‌کنند. نتایج پژوهش علاوه بر ارائه یک چارچوب ساختار یافته برای مطالعه معنای خصوصیات مسکن، بر ارزش‌های اساسی ساکنان و معانی پنهان در رابطه با این خصوصیات تأکید دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Assessing the Meaning of Housing Attribute Based on Meaning Structure Method; Case Study: Andisheh Mehr Housing, Ardabil, Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • Saba Khorasani Moghadam 1
  • Farhang Mozafar 2
  • Seyyed Bagher Hosseini 3
1 Ph.D. Student of Architecture, School of Architecture and Urbanism, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran.
2 Associate Professor of Architecture, School of Architecture and Urbanism, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran
3 Associate Professor of Architecture, School of Architecture and Urbanism, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

The quantitative aspects of housing have long been considered by the designers and policymakers of low-income housing. However, qualitative aspects and the residents' role in determining these aspects were neglected in many studies. The uniform housing in different regions, constructing the minimum housing disregarding the cultural differences and considering economic issues rather than paying attention to the qualities of life indicates the minimum consideration of the qualitative aspects of these cultural groups' housing. One of the qualitative concepts considered by the housing researchers is “the meaning of housing” from residents’ points of view and identifying its determining components in the behavioral-environmental studies. Given the significance of meaning in establishing a relationship between the individual and the built environment, the current study considered the relationship between the individuals and the meaningful attributes of the environment and assessed the meaning of housing by identifying the meaning of the attributes of the internal space of housing and relationship between the individuals and these attributes. Thus, the case study was implemented in the 168-unit Mehr Housing Project of Andisheh, Ardebil. The current research utilized the “meaning structure method” as the research approach of the qualitative study using photography technique, field research, and semi-structured laddering interview. The research conceptual model described the consequences and meanings ruling the characteristics in the form of “attribute, latent function, the manifest function” using the means-end model of Gutman (1982) and levels of meaning of Rapaport (1988). The theoretical saturation determined the number of samples, interviews, and receiving data to ensure the required information. According to the hierarchal value map, the housing attributes were affected by “pleasant life”. Other consequences provided the meanings such as “social relations”, “independence”, “privacy”, “connection with nature” in the housing. The results also emphasized the fundamental values of the residents and the latent meanings regarding these attributes while presenting a structured framework to study the meaning of the housing attributes.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Housing
  • Housing Attributes
  • Low-income Group
  • Mehr housing
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