ارزش‌یابی‌ تجارب سازگارسازی بناهای تاریخی در ایران (پیشنهاد چارچوبی برای تدوین الگوی ارزشیابی‌ها)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری معماری اسلامی، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه هنر اصفهان، اصفهان، ایران

2 دانشیار گروه معماری، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه هنر اصفهان، اصفهان، ایران

چکیده

مداخله در بناهای تاریخی به‌منظور سازگارسازی آن‌ها با بهره‌برداری‌های‌ جدید در برخی موارد ممکن است با جنبه‌های اصیل بنا به‌مثابه میراث فرهنگی مغایرت‌هایی داشته باشد. ارزشیابی این سازگارسازی‌ها به‌منظور قضاوت در مورد مطلوبیت مداخلات یا اطمینان از درستی تصمیمات برای اقدامات آتی، ضروری است. علی‌رغم گسترش این‌گونه تجارب در کشور، هنوز نظام ارزشیابی رسمی و جامعی در این رابطه تدوین نشده است. در طراحی و اجرای ارزشیابی‌ها، به‌منظور دستیابی به اهداف موردنظر، حسب شرایط از الگوهای مختلفی استفاده می‌شود. با توجه به این نکته، مقاله حاضر به این پرسش‌ها می‌پردازد که: تدوین الگوی ارزشیابی متأثر از چه عواملی و چگونه میسر است؟ و الگوی ارزشیابی متناسب با شرایط تجارب سازگارسازی بناهای تاریخی در ایران چگونه است؟ برای پاسخ به این پرسش‌ها، در چارچوب روش تحلیل محتوای کیفی، از بررسی اسناد و استدلال منطقی در گردآوری و تحلیل داده‌ها استفاده شد. ادبیات حوزه ارزشیابی نشانگر آن است که انتخاب راهکارهای مناسب و تدوین الگوی ارزشیابی وابسته به عواملی ناشی از ماهیت موضوع و زمینه ارزشیابی است. در این مرحله مدل تعیین راهکار با توجه به وضعیت‌های محتمل عوامل مؤثر ایجاد شد. در مرحله بعد پس از شناسایی موقعیت‌های ارزشیابی در تجارب سازگارسازی بناهای تاریخی و چالش‌های پیش روی آن به‌ویژه در شرایط ایران، وضعیت عوامل مؤثر بر تعیین راهکارهای طراحی و اجرای ارزشیابی در هر موقعیت موردبررسی قرار گرفت. بررسی‌ها نشان داد وضعیت برخی عوامل وابسته به مورد و غیرقابل‌پیش‌بینی است و بنابراین امکان پیشنهاد الگویی از پیش تعیین شده برای ارزشیابی‌ها‌ وجود ندارد. در بخش نتیجه‌گیری بر اساس وضعیت عوامل، راهکارهای قابل‌استفاده در هر موقعیت ارزشیابی در قالب یک چارچوب راهنما ارائه گردیده است که می‌تواند به تدوین الگوی ارزشیابی‌ متناسب با زمینه تجارب سازگارسازی بناهای تاریخی در ایران و ویژگی‌های خاص هر پروژه کمک کند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluating the Adaptation Experiences of the Historical Buildings in Iran (Proposing a Framework to Develop Evaluations Model)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Alireza Naserolmemar 1
  • Ahmad Aminpoor 2
1 Ph.D. Candidate of the Islamic Architecture, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Art University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran.
2 Associate Professor of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Art University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran
چکیده [English]

Intervention in the historical buildings to adapt them to the new uses might be contrary to the authentic aspects of the buildings as cultural heritages. Evaluation of these adaptations to assess the desirability of the interventions or ensure the correct decisions for future actions is necessary. Despite the development of these experiences in Iran, a formal and comprehensive evaluation system has not yet been developed. Different models are used to design and implement the evaluations to achieve the considered purposes based on the circumstances. The current research addressed the following questions: What factors influence the evaluation model, and how it can be realized? What is the proper evaluation model based on the circumstances of the adaptation experiences of the historical buildings in Iran? Logical reasoning was used to collect and analyze data using qualitative content analysis to answer these questions. Literature review of the evaluation showed that selecting proper approaches and developing the evaluation model depended on the factors caused by the nature of the subject and the context of the evaluation. Then, a model of determining approaches was developed based on the possible situations of the influential factors. In the next step, after identifying the evaluation situations in the adaptation experiences of the historical building and the challenges ahead, especially in Iran, the influential factors in determining the approaches of the evaluation design and implementation were studied in each situation. The studies showed that the situation of some of the factors depended on the case and was unpredictable. Therefore, it was not possible to propose a predetermined model for the evaluations. The useful approaches in each evaluation situation were presented in a guiding framework in conclusion. It can contribute to the development of the evaluation model appropriate to the adaptation experiences of the historical buildings in Iran and the particular features of each project.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • evaluation model
  • Adaptation experiences
  • Historical buildings
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