دلبستگی مکانی در مقیاس محله: مرور نظام مند دو دهه مقالات پژوهشی در ایران

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دکتری شهرسازی، دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران.

2 استاد گروه شهرسازی، دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

3 استادیار گروه معماری، دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه بوعلی، همدان، ایران.

چکیده

دلبستگی به محله پیوندی روانشناختی واجد ابعاد احساسی، شناختی و رفتاری است که پیامدهای مثبتی چون احساس عزت‌نفس، آسایش، تقویت سرمایه اجتماعی و مشارکت جمعی ساکنان محله‌ها به همراه دارد. شناسایی عوامل تأثیرگذار بر تقویت دلبستگی به محله گامی ضروری در برنامه‌ریزی توسعه پایدار محله‌ای است. این مقاله می‌کوشد با اتخاذ روش مرور نظام‌مند1، مقالات پژوهشی کشور حدفاصل سال‌های 1398 تا  1380 در زمینه دلبستگی به محله را شناسایی و یافته‌های آن‌ها را در چگونگی تبیین این مفهوم و عوامل تأثیرگذار بر آن تحلیل نماید. همچنین تلاش می‌شود تا ضمن شناسایی تناقض‌ها در نتایج و خلاءهای مطالعاتی موجود، پژوهش‌های آتی به نحوی پیشنهاد شوند تا بستری برای بسط نظریه بومی دلبستگی به محله فراهم شود. نتایج مرور نظام‌مند پژوهش‌ها نشان داد تمام مطالعات در تببین «ماهیت دلبستگی به محله» بر روانشناختی بودن این پیوند و پیامدهای رفتاری آن تأکید شده و سازوکارهای روانشناختی عمیق‌ در ابعاد احساسی و شناختی تشریح نشده است. همچنین محققان در شناسایی عوامل اثرگذار بر این پیوند بیش‌تر بر ابعاد انسانی و مکانی پیوند تمرکز داشته‌اند. خلاء تئوری مکان و محله دستیابی به نتیجه‌ای واجد انسجام نظری را دشوار کرده است. در بعد انسانی تأثیر متغیرهای مدت زمان سکونت، جنسیت، سطح تحصیلات و مالکیت مسکن در مطالعات مختلف در تناقض با یکدیگر شناسایی شدند. اما تأهل و سطح درآمد خانوار واجد تأثیری مثبت و تحرک جمعیتی تأثیری منفی بر این پیوندها داشتند. در بعد رفتاری مشارکت اجتماعی، پرتکرارترین متغیر مورد مطالعه و واجد رابطه‌ای معنادار و مثبت با این پیوندها و در بعد احساسی نیز احساس امنیت روانی و آسایش رابطه‌ای معنادار و مثبت را نشان داده‌اند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Place Attachment at the Neighborhood Scale: A Systematic Review of Two Decades of Research in Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • Samaneh Khabiri 1
  • Mohammad Reza Pourjafar 2
  • Mohammad Saeid Izadi 3
1 Ph.D. Urban Planning, Faculty of art and Architecture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.
2 Professor of Urban Design, Faculty of Art and Architecture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
3 Assistant Professor of Architecture, Faculty of Art and Architecture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Neighborhood attachment is a psychological bond with some affective, perceptual, and behavioral dimensions that are associated with positive outcomes such as self-esteem, comfort, strengthening social capital, and residents’ participation. The identification of factors affecting the neighborhood attachment is an essential step forward in sustainable neighborhood development. Using a systematic approach, this article sought to elaborate on the research articles done nationally from 2001 to 2019 on neighborhood attachment and to analyze their findings to explain this concept and the factors affecting it. Meanwhile, conflicting findings and research gaps were addressed and suggestions were made for future research so that a context is laid for expanding a local theory of Neighborhood Attachment. The results from the systematic review demonstrated that all researches have explained the "nature of neighborhood attachment" to emphasize the psychology of this relationship and its behavioral outcomes; however, they have failed to show deep psychological mechanisms in affective and perceptual dimensions. Researchers have tended to concentrate on the human and place dimensions of this bond when identifying the factors affecting it. The lack of place and neighborhood theory made it difficult to achieve a theoretically coherent conclusion. As for the human dimension, the effects of such variables as residence duration, gender, level of education, and housing ownership in different studies were identified to have contradicted each other. However, marital status and household income had a positive impact, and population mobility a negative effect on these bonds. As for the behavioral dimension of social participation, the most repetitive variables under study were significantly and positively related with the bonds, while the Psychological security and comfort demonstrated a significant and positive relationship with the bonds in the affective dimension.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Place Attachment
  • Neighborhood
  • Sense of belonging
  • Place Identity
  • Systematic review
Amirkafi, M., & Fathi, S. (2011). Factors Affecting Attachment to the Residential Area: A Case Study: Kerman. Journal of Iranian Social Studies, 5(1), 5-41. http://www.jss-isa.ir/article_22368.html?lang=en
Arabi, Z., Tavousi, S., & Mousavi, S.S. (2017). Sense of Belonging to Neighborhood and its Role in Social Participation (Case of Study: Tehran, Armenians’ Region, A). Journal of Iranian Social Development Studies, 9(1), 21-33. https://jisds.srbiau.ac.ir/article_10523.html?lang=en
Ayazi, S.M. (2013). Recognition of the Neighborhood Morphological Changes in Tehran. Tehran, Omidan Publication, Iran.
Azamazadeh, M., & Jahangiri, Z. (2014). Neighborhood Prestige and Feeling of Safety among Residents Different Sectors of Tehran. Iranian Journal of Sociology of Social Institutions, 1(2), 37-60. http://journals.umz.ac.ir/article_731.html?lang=en
Bakhtiari, M. (2010). Social Trust and its Relationship with Some Social Factors (Case Study of Qom). Iranian Journal of Cultural and Social Studies, 2, 65-92. https://www.sid.ir/fa/journal/ViewPaper.aspx?id=210868
Bastani, S., & Nikzad, S. (2014). Personal Networks and Neighborhood Attachment in Tehran City: with Emphasis on the Role of Modern Communication Mediums. Quarterly of Social Studies and Research in Iran, 3(2), 193-220. doi: 10.22059/JISR.2014.53136
Beheshti, H. (2011). Neighborhood: A Traditional Institution to Strengthen Civil Society. Andishe Iranshahr Quarterly, 5(14 & 15), 25-25. https://www.sid.ir/fa/journal/ViewPaper.aspx?ID=186855
Behzadfar, M. (2007). The Identity of the City (A Look at the Identity of Tehran). Tehran, Tehran Municipality Art and Cultural Organization, Institute of City Publication, Iran.
Comstock, N., Dickinson, M.L., Marshall, J.A., Soobader, M.J., Turbin, M.S., Buchenau, M., & Litt, J. (2010). Neighborhood Attachment and Its Correlates: Exploring Neighborhood Conditions, Collective Efficacy, and Gardening. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 30(4), 435-442. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvp.2010.05.001
Greif, M.J. (2009). Neighborhood Attachment in the Multiethnic Metropolis. City & Community, 8, 27-45. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6040.2009.01268.x
Gustafson, P. (2014). Place Attachment in Age of Mobility.In L, C. Manzo & P. Devine-Wright (Eds.), Place Attachment: Advances in Theory, Methods and Applications(37-49). Routledge.
Hidalgo, M.C., & Hernández, B. (2001). Place Attachment: Conceptual and Empirical Questions. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 21, 273-281. https://doi.org/10.1006/jevp.2001.0221
Jamshidiha, G., Parvai, S., Piri, S., & Hajbagheri, S. (2014). The Role of Community Sense-of-Belonging in Promoting Social Participation (Case of Study: Ghezel Ghalea Neighborhood of Tehran). Iranian Journal of Urban Sociological Studies, 12(12), 1-24. https://www.sid.ir/en/journal/ViewPaper.aspx?id=426597
Kamalipour, H., J Yeganeh, A., & Alalhesabi, M. (2012). Predictors of Place Attachment in Urban Residential Environments: A Residential Complex Study. Journal of Social and Behavioral Sciences, 35, 459-467. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.02.111
Khan, K.S., Kunz, R., Kleijnen, J., & Antes, G. (2003). Five Steps to Conducting a Systematic Review. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 96(3), 118-121. https://doi.org/10.1258/jrsm.96.3.118
Lak, A. (2016). Bam Earthquake and Neighborhoods’ Residents’Understanding of Meaning of Disruption in Place Attachment. Journal of Housing and Rural Environment, 34(152), 17-30. http://jhre.ir/article-1-861-en.html
Lewicka, M. (2005). Ways to Make People Active: Role of Place Attachment, Culturalcapital and Neighborhood Ties. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 4, 381-395. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvp.2005.10.004
Lewicka, M. (2011). Place Attachment: How Far have we Come in the Last 40 Years? Journal of Environmental Psychology, 31, 207-230. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvp.2010.10.001
Lipsey, M.W., & Wilson, D.B. (2001). Practical Meta-analysis. London: Sage Publications.
Livingston, M., Bailey, N., & Kearns, A .(2008).  People’s Attachment to Place-the Influence of Neighbourhood Deprivation. Joseph Rowntree Foundation, Glasgow University.
Majidi, B., & Heydari, S. (2017). Assessment of Place Identity in Urban Neighborhoods Case Study: Sanglaj Neighborhood, District 12 of Tehran. Biannual Journal of Urban Ecology Research, 8(16), 13-22. http://grup.journals.pnu.ac.ir/article_3899.html?lang=en
Manzo, L., & Wright, D.P. (2019). Place Attachment. In Linda Steg and Judith I. M. de Groot (Ed), Environmental Psychology: An Introduction, Second Edition (135-143). John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Mobaraki, M., & Salahi, S. (2014). The Quality of Urban Services, Citizenship Commitment and Sense of Social Belonging. Social Welfare Quarterly, 13(50), 275-315.  http://refahj.uswr.ac.ir/article-1-1363-fa.html
Mohammadi, J., Hasaninejad, A., & Osanloo, A. (2014). An Evaluation of the Sense of Security of the Citizens Regarding the Urban Area Identity. Quarterly of Criminal and Intelligence Research, 9(33), 9-32. https://www.sid.ir/En/Journal/ViewPaper.aspx?ID=414613
Montazerolhodjah, M., Sharifnejad, M., & Dehghan, S. (2017). Assessment of Factors Affecting the Sense of Place in Urban Centers Neighborhood (Case Study: Sheikhdad Neighborhood and Shahrak Daneshgah Neighborhood, City of Yazd). Journal of Studies on Iranian - Islamic City, 7(26), 43-54. https://www.sid.ir/en/journal/ViewPaper.aspx?id=546604
Pakzad, J .(2008). An Intellectual History of Urbanism- From Space to Place. Tehran, Armanshahr Publications, Iran.
Petticrew, M., & Roberts, H. (2006). Systematic Reviews in the Social Sciences: A Practical Guide. Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Phillips, R. (2015). Community Quality-of-life Indicators to Avoid Tragedies. In R. Anderson (Ed.), World Suffering and Quality of Life (293-304). Dordrecht, Springer.
Plunkett, D., Phillips, R., & Kocaoglu, B.U. (2018). Place Attachment and Community Development. Journal of Community Practice, 26(4), 471-482.
Pretty, G.H., Chipuer, H.M., & Bramston, P. (2003). Sense of Place Amongst Adolescents and Adults in Two Rural Australian Towns: The Discriminating Features of Place Attachment, Sense of Community and Place Dependence in Relation to Place Identity. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 23, 273-287. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0272-4944(02)00079-8
Rezvan, A., & Fathi, M. (2012). Factors Related to Insecurity Feeling. Social Welfare Quarterly, 12(45), 451-479. http://refahj.uswr.ac.ir/article-1-1022-en.html
Rollero, C., & De Piccoli, N. (2010). Does Place Attachment Affect Social Wellbeing? European Review of Applied Psychology, 60, 233-238. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.erap.2010.05.001
Rostamalizadeh, V., & Nemati, M. (2015). Study of Formation Backgrounds of Attachment to Neighborhood. Journal of Community Development (Rural and Urban Communities), 7(1), 153-172. https://jrd.ut.ac.ir/article_58440.html?lang=en
Saraei, M., Oshnooi, A., & Rousta, M. (2016). Evaluation of Spatial Indices Belongs to Old Texture Residents of the City of Kashan. Geography and Environmental Planning, 27(2), 17-34. http://dx.doi.org/10.22108/gep.2016.21813
Scannell, L., & Gifford, R. (2010). Defining Place Attachment: A Tripartite Organizing Framework. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 30, 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvp.2009.09.006
Scannell, L., & Gifford, R. (2013). The Psychology of Place Attachment. In R. Gifford, Environmental Psychology: Principles and Practice .Fifth Edition,(272-300). Optimal Books; 5th edition.
Shamaei, A., & Jahani, R. (2012). The Study of the Effects of Vertical Development of the City on District Identity (A Case Study: District 7 of Tehran). Journal of Studies on Iranian - Islamic City, 6, 73-82. https://www.sid.ir/en/journal/ViewPaper.aspx?id=325932
Sharemi, A.S., & Partovi, P. (2010). Study and Evaluation of Sense of Place in Organic Neighborhoods and Planned Neighborhoods (Case Study: Sagharisazan and Guilan Blvd. Neighborhoods in Rasht). Journal of Architecture and Urban Planning, 2(3), 23-40. https://www.sid.ir/en/journal/ViewPaper.aspx?id=253743
Vahida, F., & Negini, S. (2012). The Construction and Validation of the Construct “Neighborhood Identity”. Urban Studies, 2(2), 35-58. https://www.sid.ir/en/journal/ViewPaper.aspx?ID=288111
Zahnow, R., & Amy Tsai, A. (2019). Crime Victimization, Place Attachment, and the Moderating Role of Neighborhood Social Ties and Neighboring Behavior. Environment and Behavior, 1-29. https://doi.org/10.1177/0013916519875175
Zamani, B., & Honorvar, M. (2018). Investigation of Place Attachment Factors in Urban Neighborhoods, Case Studies: Dardasht, Charsoghiha, Mollasadra and Doteflan Neighborhoods of Isfahan. Armanshahr Architecture and Urban Development, 10(21), 161-172. http://www.armanshahrjournal.com/article_58601.html?lang=en