تأملی بر روش‌های کمی و کیفی مطالعات فرم-ریخت‌شناسانه شهری (رویکردها و تکنیک‌ها)، مورد مطالعاتی: بافت تاریخی خرم‌آباد

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری شهرسازی، دانشکده عمران، معماری و هنر، واحد علوم و تحقیقات، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران.

2 دانشیار گروه شهرسازی، دانشکده عمران، معماری و هنر، واحد علوم و تحقیقات، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران

3 استاد گروه شهرسازی، دانشکده عمران، معماری و هنر، واحد علوم و تحقیقات، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

شناخت همه‌جانبه فرم شهری، گام مؤثری در موفقیت برای تدوین برنامه‌ها و طرح‌های نوین شهری خواهد بود. ازآنجایی‌که تحلیل فرم- ریخت‌شناسانه شهری دیدگاه جامع‌تری از شهر را برای طرح‌های توسعه درون‌زا و برون‌زای شهری ایجاد می‌کند، در این پژوهش هدف بررسی مطالعات صورت‌گرفته در حوزه فرم- ریخت شهری و دسته‌بندی آن‌ها در قالب روش‌های کمی وکیفی، همچنین معرفی رویکردها و تکنیک‌های آن است.  ازاین‌رو با بررسی سیر تطور فکری نظریه‌پردازان، با تأکید بر مبانی نظری اندیشمندان متأخری چون «مودون، اولیویرا و کروپف»، به ارائه یک دسته‌بندی جامع از مطالعات کمی و کیفی حوزه ریخت‌شناسی شهری پرداخته، رویکردها و تکنیک‌های تحلیلی هر یک بیان می‌شود. سپس در چارچوب مفهومی پژوهش بر اساس این مطالعات، به معرفی عناصر سازنده و تحلیل ارتباطات سازنده فرم-ریخت شهری پرداخته می‌شود. محله درب باباطاهر واقع در هسته تاریخی خرم‌آباد، باوجود چند اثر تاریخی و پتانسیل بالا برای مبدل شدن به قطب گردشگری- تاریخی شهر، با عدم توجه به ارزش‌ها و کیفیت‌های کالبدی- فضایی مواجه است. پژوهش برحسب هدف کاربردی است و راهبردهای دستیابی به اهداف آن، آمیخته (کمی و کیفی) است. روش کیفی با مطالعات اکتشافی و تکنیک تحلیل محتوای جهت‌دار صورت گرفته است. این پژوهش با دسته‌بندی رویکردهای مطالعاتی فرم-ریخت‌شناسانه شهری و ارائه تکنیک‌های متناسب با هر رویکرد و تحلیل محتوای اندیشه‌ای آن، به استخراج ابزار شناختی و روش‌های تحلیلی پرداخته است. از تکنیک تحلیل شبکه شهری (UNA) برای تحلیل مورد مطالعاتی بهره گرفته‌شده و با استفاده از پنج تابع «دسترسی، جاذبه، بینابینی، مجاورت و مستقیم‌بودن» در تحلیل شبکه‌ای به بررسی فضای جریان‌ها در محله موردمطالعه پرداخته می‌شود. یافته‌های پژوهش حاکی این مطلب است که می‌توان به کمک تلفیقی از طراحی تکمیلی و توسعه درون‌زا و طراحی انطباقی با حفظ عناصر ریختی و ویژگی‌های اصلی بافت، بر مبنای احترام به گذشته ارزشمند فضایی، به تقویت و تثبیت شخصیت فرم محله‌های شهری در بافت‌های تاریخی دست‌یافت.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Reflection on Quantitative and Qualitative Methods of Urban Form-Morphological Studies (Approaches and Techniques); Case Study: Historical Texture of Khorramabad

نویسندگان [English]

  • Pantea Alipour kouhi 1
  • Zahra Sadat Saeideh Zarabadi 2
  • Hamid Majedi 3
1 Ph.D. Student of Urban Planning, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Architecture and Art, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
2 Associate Professor of Urbanism, Department of Urbanism, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Architecture and Art, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
3 Professor of Urbanism, Department of Urbanism, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Architecture and Art, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Comprehensive recognition of urban form will be an effective step in success of developing new urban plans. Since urban form-morphological analysis provides a more comprehensive view of the city for endogenous and exogenous urban development plans, the present study aims to review the studies on urban form, and classify them in terms of quantitative and qualitative methods, as well as to introduce their approaches and techniques. Therefore, a comprehensive classification of quantitative and qualitative studies on urban morphology, approaches and analysis techniques is presented by examining the intellectual evolution of theorists and emphasizing the theoretical foundations of recent scientists such as Moudon, Olivier, and Kropf. Then, in the conceptual framework of the research, which is developed based on the studies reviewed, the constructive elements are introduced and the constructive urban form-morphology relations are analyzed. Despite some historical monuments and its high potential to become a tourism-historical hub of the city, the Darb-e Babataher Neighborhood, located in the historical core of Khorramabad, faces a lack of attention to its physical-spatial values and qualities. The present study is applied research carried out using the mixed (quantitative and qualitative) method. The qualitative methods applied in the present study are exploratory studies and directed content analysis. This research extracts cognitive tools and analytical methods by classifying the urban form-morphological study approaches, presenting techniques appropriate to each approach and analyzing the content of its ideas. The Urban Network Analysis (UNA) technique is used to analyze the case study and investigate the mobility in it using five «reach, gravity, betweenness, closeness, and straightness» functions in network analysis. Findings indicate that based on respect for the valuable space remained from the past, the character of urban neighborhoods in historical textures can be strengthened and consolidated by combining complementary design, endogenous development, and adaptive design while preserving the morphological elements and the main characteristics of the texture.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Urban Form
  • Urban Morphology
  • urban texture
  • Khorramabad
  • Urban Network Analysis (UNA)
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