تحلیلی بر تعارضات مراکز خرید بزرگ ‌مقیاس شهر تهران از منظر منفعت عمومی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دکتری شهرسازی، دانشکده شهرسازی و معماری، دانشگاه هنر، تهران، ایران.

2 دانشیار گروه طراحی شهری، دانشکده شهرسازی و معماری، دانشگاه هنر، تهران، ایران

چکیده

کالایی‌سازی فضای عمومی، از جمله فرآیندهای مؤثر بر تولید فضاهای شهری است که در دو دهه اخیر در ایران و شهر تهران، منشأ تحولات قابل توجهی بوده است. نمونه بارز این فرآیند، ساخت‌وسازهای بی‌رویه تجاری و رشد بی‌سابقه مراکز خرید بزرگ مقیاس است. در طی دو دهه اخیر مال‌ها در شهر تهران رشد قارچ‌گونه داشته‌اند. مطالعالت زیادی در خصوص پیدایش مال‌ها و اثرات آن‌ها در شهرها ازجنبه‌های مختلف انجام شده است. برخی از مطالعات و پژوهش‌ها مراکز خرید را به‌عنوان فضاهای عمومی مطالعه کرده و اثرات و پیامدهای آن‌ها را از ابعاد مختلف واکاوی نموده‌اند. در این پژوهش‌ها به‌طور مستقیم به معیارهای منفعت عمومی اشاره نشده است، اما در بطن خود، به شاخص‌هایی همچون فراگیر بودن برای تمام گرو‌ه‌های اجتماعی، دسترس‌پذیری برابر، رایگان بودن، عدم تبعیض، اجتماع‌پذیری و امنیت اشاره کرده‌اند که جملگی جزء مصادیق نفع عمومی محسوب می‌شوند. برخی دیگر از مطالعات، پروژه‌های بزرگ مقیاس شهری را از منظر منفعت عمومی تحلیل کرده‌اند که مگامال و مال‌ها نیز جزیی از این پروژه‌ها محسوب می‌شوند. از آن‌جا که توسعه مال‌ها تا حد زیادی وابسته به اراده سرمایه‌گذاران بخش خصوصی- و البته با همراهی مجوزهای صادره از سوی نهادهای دولتی- است، از این رو، می‌توان گفت انگیزه اصلی از تولید و توسعه چنین فضاهایی، به‌طور صرف کسب سود از فضا است از طرفی، استقبال عمومی از این مراکز و نقشی که به‌عنوان فضای عمومی مبتنی بر مصرف در کلانشهرها یافته‌اند، این الزام را به وجود می‌آورد تا اثرات و پیامدهای آن‌ها از جنبه‌های مختلف مورد بررسی قرار گیرد. در این مقاله تعارضات مراکز خرید بزرگ مقیاس شهر تهران از دیدگاه منفعت عمومی بررسی شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

An Analysis of the Conflicts of Tehran's Large-Scale Shopping Centers from the Public Interest Perspective

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mahbobeh Izadpanah 1
  • Mitra Habibi 2
1 Ph.D. of Urbanism, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Tehran University of Art, Tehran, Iran.
2 Associate Professor of Urban Design, Department of Urban Design, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Tehran University of Art, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

The commodification of the public space is one of the influential processes on the generation of the urban spaces, which has been the origin of considerable evolutions in the recent two decades. An example of this process is the excessive commercial constructions and the unprecedented growth of large-scale shopping centers. Over the last two decades, malls were developed irregularly in Tehran. Various studies have been conducted on the emergence of malls and their effects and consequences on the cities from different perspectives. Some of these studies investigated the shopping centers as public spaces and analyzed their effects and consequences from various aspects. The public interest has not been mentioned directly or indirectly in these studies. However, they stated the characteristics, such as inclusiveness for all social groups, equal accessibility, being free, lack of discrimination, sociability, and security, all of which are considered examples of the public interest. Other research analyzed the large-scale urban projects from a public interest perspective, among which are the mega malls and malls. Since the development of the malls considerably depends on the will of the private sector investors along with the permissions issued by the government organizations, thus, it can be said that the main motivation for the production and development of these spaces is earning profit from the space. On the other hand, the public’s welcome of these centers and their role as the public space based on the consumption in the metropolitans requires the study of their effects and consequences from various aspects. The current paper studied the conflicts of the large-scale shopping centers of Tehran from the public interest perspective.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Public space
  • Large Shopping Centers
  • public interest
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