عنوان مقاله [English]
Today, countries that have experienced damages caused by wars, pay special attentions to passive defense in their defense strategies to protect their national properties and vital resources. To this end, observing passive defense considerations in urban development and design has a great impact on reducing the vulnerability of cities, financial losses, and casualties as well as increasing citizens’ tolerance threshold which can facilitate urban crisis management. The article analyzes the macro models of urban patterns and their strengths and weaknesses. In this regard, some of the obligations necessary for improving sustainable resistance of these forms under war conditions are proposed. The micro scale form-based considerations as well as the effects of specific small-scale urban design arrangements and requirements such as parcel size, arrangement and layout of structural parts, etc., which can reduce the damages resulting from attacks on cities, have been discussed as well. This study is an original research and upon on the purpose of the paper it is based on applied one. Due to the complexity of the morphology design and passive defense, the combination of exploratory and descriptive-analytical research is used as the methodology.
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