بررسی رابطه بین تفکیک اراضی شهری و کیفیت فضاهای شهری در توسعه های جدید شهری، مطالعه موردی: شهر زنجان

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 عضو هیئت علمی گروه معماری دانشگاه تهران، پردیس هنرهای زیبا، تهران، ایران.

2 عضو هیئت علمی گروه شهرسازی، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه بین المللی امام خمینی (ره)، قزوین، ایران

3 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد طراحی شهری، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی قزوین، قزوین، ایران

چکیده

توسعه های جدید شهری با الگوی تفکیکی شطرنجی خشک و بدون توجه به کیفیت فضاهای شهری و کیفیت زندگی ساکنین شکل گرفت هاند. در توسعه های جدید بی توجهی به جنبه های کیفی فضایی سبب کاهش کیفیت محیط انسان ساخت شده است. علاوه بر الگوی شطرنجی، الگوهای دوربرگردان و ترکیبی (دوربرگردان- شطرنجی) نیز از الگوهای تفکیکی در توسع ههای جدید شهری است که م یتوانند با رعایت اصول طراحی شهرک های جدید جایگزین الگوی شطرنجی شوند. هدف این پژوهش بررسی رابطه بین تفکیک اراضی شهری و کیفیت فضاهای شهری در توسع ههای جدید شهری است. در این پژوهش با مطالعه نمونه های موفق توسع ههای جدید در کشورهای دیگر و مورد مطالعه قرار دادن سه الگوی تفکیکی شطرنجی، دوربرگردان و ترکیبی (شطرنجی- دوربرگردان) که در ایران از الگوهای تفکیکی رایج هستند، تلاش بر این است تا با مقایسه الگوهای تفکیکی پیشنهادهایی در جهت طراحی الگوهایی داده شود که در آن ها کیفیت فضاهای شهری مطلوب و قابل قبول گردند. نوع روش تحقیق کیفی است و به صورت توصیفی- تحلیلی و از طریق مطالعه متون و اسناد موجود و مطالعات میدانی انجام پذیرفته شده است. نمونه های موردی و الگوهایی از تفکیک اراضی در کشورهای گوناگون با توجه به نوع مناطق آ نها و تنوع در تفکیک اراضی آن ها بررسی می شود. بررسی نمون ههای موردی از طریق مشاهده مستقیم و غیر مستقیم (پرسشنامه) است. الگوهای تفکیکی قطعات و معیارهای کیفیت فضاهای شهری مورد بررسی قرار گرفته است و این معیارها در نمونه های موفق جهانی و نمونه های مورد مطالعه مورد بررسی قرار گرفته و پیشنهادهایی برای ارائه الگوهای تفکیکی مطلوب ارائه خواهد شد. با مطالعه نمونه موردی به این نتیجه دست یافتیم که کیفیت فضاهای شهری در سه الگوی دوربرگردان، شطرنجی و دوربرگردان- شطرنجی یکسان نیست و براساس مطالعات میدانی کیفیت فضاهای شهری در الگوی دوربرگردان- شطرنجی مطلوب تر از دو الگوی دیگر است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation of Relationship between Urban Land Subdivision and Urban Spaces Quality in Urban Extensions, Case Study: Zanjan City

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hamidreza Ebrahimi 1
  • Naser Barati 2
  • Mehran Faramarzi 3
1 Associate Professor of Architecture, School of Architecture, College of Fine Arts, University of Tehran, Iran.
2 Associate Professor of Urbanism, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Development, Imam Khomeini, International University, Qazvin, Iran.
3 M. A. student in Urban Design, Faculty of Architecture & Urbanism, Islamic Azad University of Ghazvin, Ghazvin, Iran.
چکیده [English]

The purpose of this research is to investigate the relationship between urban land subdivision and urban spaces quality in the urban extensions. Nowadays, most of the new urban development sare formed without any regard to the quality of urban spaces. Subdivision is related to more factors which impact urban spaces; for example, safety in grid pattern is less than the two other patterns, but access in grid pattern is more than the other two. It seems that one of the reasons behind making undesirable urban spaces in urban extensions is partial concept and process of land subdivision, because it is not just impacted byonly one factor. Fundamental factors which impacts urban land subdivision are: physical, cultural, biological, economic, and political factors. Thus, in a new urban extension one should not just consider the physical aspects as land subdivision Research method is survey research and documentary studies are used. Karmandan(grid pattern), Olompaye(cul-de-sac pattern), Ansaria(grid-cul de sac pattern) are case studies located in Zanjan City.Case studies were selected based on three land subdivision pattern: 1- grid pattern ( KarmandanShahrak), 2- cul de sac pattern ( OlompayeShahrak), and 3- cul de sac- grid pattern (AnsariaShahrak).The reasons for selecting the samples are different breakdown patterns and the same micro-climate. Case studies were compared with one another based on the questionnaire answered by residents. The questionnaires were based on urban spaces quality criteria and urban land subdivision theories and had 33 questions categorized in six groups which consisted of access, physical and spatial quality, safety, transportation, landuse and recognition of neighborhood. It was found that Ansaria’s ( cul de sac- grid pattern) is better than Karmandan’s (grid pattern) and Olompaye’s ( cul de sac pattern).In grid pattern, pedestrian access conflict with cars is more than cul-de-sac pattern, so land subdivision patterns directly affects quality of urban spaces in the new urban extensions. Land subdivision pattern impacts on the qualitative criteria of urban spaces such as: access, safety, hierarchical open space. Fundamental factors impacts on urban land subdivision are: physical, cultural, biological, economic, and political factors, so in new urban extensions physical aspects should not solely be considered as the basis for land subdivision. Finally, recommendation are represented for increasing urban space quality based on urban land subdivision such as: cohesive open spaces, mixed land use in edges, cul-de-sac access in residential land use, pedestrian access between the blocks, shared semi-public open spaces among the residential blocks, variety of size, form and orientation of the parcels, different gates for each neighborhood for making legibility in new urban extensions, use of hierarchical access network rather than checkered network for incretion of pedestrian safety, use of small cohesive squares rather than large square, use of recreational facilities such as theatres, restaurants, cafes, movie houses, and libraries with late night hours, hotels, and teenage meeting rooms. Moreover, usage of the square should be extended to night-time, Parking should be located closer to destinations in smaller areas, especially in higher density extensions and at local shops, and Parking should preferably be located away from the street at the back of buildings. If parking is provided at the front, a maximum of two rows of parking should be provided. Parking structures should not dominate street frontages and effective separation of pedestrian and vehicular movement should be at a scale which encourages activity and pedestrian comfort. To maintain privacy, a clear distance of at minimum 11 m is needed; otherwise, visual obstructive elements, such a strees, should be provided. Intensive activities and majority of public buildings should be concentrated along the common vehicle and public-transport routes. Locating buildings closer to the street would increase pedestrian activity, reduce resident isolation, and foster pedestrian services such as retail outlets. Creating special public places, as public spaces and public institutions are the focal point of community life. Public furniture should support the desired character of the space, providing physical, visible and perceptual connectivity between cluster and linear open spaces. Hard open space system and soft open space system should be aligned with main public buildings such as community centers and places of worship. Public buildings should be located in relation to formal public spaces and important movement routes. Hard open space should announce the buildings and accommodate informal activities that respond to these buildings and symbolic and/or focal points should be located in the middle of a cluster space or at the termination points of a linear space. Finally, continual special activities that exist in the node should be established within the linkages towards the node.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Urban Land Subdivision
  • Urban Spaces Quality
  • Urban Extension
  • Cul de Sac
  • Grid Pattern
  • Cul de Sc Pattern

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