عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
Linguistic concepts and theories seem to be, both from philosophical and theoretical points of view, a proper base for analyzing various phenomena such as city planning and architecture. Therefore, city as a context that contains signs, meaning, and indicators has a written architecture. This paper aims to clarify the urban space semantics in its cultural and social context so that the process of semantic occurrence in the urban space can be revealed using the linguistic approach. The projection and interpretation of the urban space is applied through semantic principles. As the sense and reference (in linguistic terms) are two important expressions of meaning realization, there are found some interwoven semantic approaches for getting an interpretation of the urban space. Contextual meaning is an issue realized by the syntactic rules and representational concepts (linguistic conceptions) along with references through situational and non-verbal themes. Likewise, simultaneity of three objectives, subjective and social features in the frame of structural features of space, spatial conceptions, experiences and actors’ speech and behavior can lead to the process of meaning occurrence in the urban space. This is followed by this matter that how the human mind operates in understanding of meaning using linguistic (concept) and non-linguistic context. Among these ideas, implication of the inter languages in the frame of syntax rules (linguistic structure) and representational concepts (perceptions of language) refers to the relation between linguistic units (Words and sentences) and (proof) of the outside world. As the words are put together, they achieve certain value. Another part of the implication of inter languages goes back to the cognitive semantic. Cognitive semantic is proposed rather than the outside world, (conceptual structure) and cognition is reflected from human experience in the outside world. In this approach, understanding the meaning association Part of the speech with the situation that this part of speech describes is of importance. Implication of the Extra-linguistics in Non-verbal and situational frameworks, leads to meaning relation between the linguistic units in a language system. According to the viewpoint of most Linguists, it is impossible to understand the meaning of sentences or words without referring to their situational context and the sentences that have proceeded or followed them. On this basis, there are two kinds of semantics.the first kind deals with the structural meaning, and the second kind studies meaning using non-linguistic experiences in the outside world. In other words, a part of understanding meaning of a text is related to the companion rules units, another fundamental building process, such as the conceptual schema. The final part deals with how people apply language in their daily activities. According to this fact and by applying the semantic approach in the urban spaces as a context, process of occurrence of meaning in the urban spaces has been realized by synchronization of three factors, namely, the objective, subjective and the social factors. In the frame of structural spaces, understanding and experiencing spaces and behavior are realized in physical spaces. Each of these factors depends on the other factors. That is, the meaning of the urban space is inspired by the syntactic and structural rules of the space in which the elements and components are interwoven. This causes a total integrity which provides a combination of functions in spatial morphology through the syntagmatic rules of urban elements. Mental images and maps created by citizens are the most important factor which signifies and attributes meaning to the urban space through what appears to be a specific relationship between the elements, signs and the symbols in space with a chain of events in the conception stage. Signs have dependent meanings are understood by the addresser and produce common meanings. Human presence in a space can be accompanied by discovery of message, meaning and new mystery. Behavioral patterns and collective actions are used to regulate the people’s relationship and internalize the semantics of the urban space. Relating to this issue, it could be said that the urban space doesn’t just have a spatial and physical dimension, but rather the society and the people are integrated in different hierarchy with space. Therefore, patterns of social and cultural events cause integration of urban spaces with the addresser and the inhabitant. Based on generalizing the above features and the semantic signifiers, this paper pays attention to the Iranian bazar as an urban space reference. The Iranian Bazar, as an urban space, is the representative of the structural, conceptual and social behavior dimensions in a space. In the Iranian bazar, the syntagmatic of the urban elements around the Bazar axis provides the spatial projection which reflects an artistic representation of the conceptual and mental quality through paving the material and spiritual trend. The behavior frames and space’s nature have helped the bazar to have a semantic significance.
-- Ahmadi, Babak. (1992).The Text –Structure and Textual Interpretation. Tehran: Nashr-e Markaz Publishing Co.
-- Altman, Irwin. (2003). The Environment and Social Behavior, Privacy, Personal Space, Territory, Crowding. (Ali.
Namazian, Trans.). Tehran: University Of Shahid Beheshti Press.
-- Bentley, L.A., Alcock, P., Murrain, S., McGlynn, G. Smith. (1985). Responsive Environment: A Manual For Designers.
London: The Architectural Press.
-- Barthes, Roland. (1977). Rhetoric of the image . (Stephan. Heath, ed. & Trans.). Newyork: Hill&Wang.
-- 1974,1992( .). Design Of The Cities. London: Thames & Hudson. -Bacon, E
-- Carmona, M. (1388). Public Places, Urban Spaces. (Fariba. Gharai, Trans.). Tehran: University Of Atr Press.
-- Chomsky, N. (1965). Aspects of the theory of Syntax. Cambridge: MA: MIT Press.
-- Chomsky, N. (1970). Current Issues in Lingustic theory. Netherlands: Mouton.
-- C, Levi-Strauss. (1973). .Anthropologie Structurale. Prais: vol. 1.
-- Dougherty, R. (1975). Harris and Chomsky at the syntax – semantics boundry. (In D. Hockney.Etal, eds.). Contemporary
-- Eco, Umberto.(1992). La Production des Signes . Le livre de poche, bibilo,essais.
-- Gosling, David.(1996).Gordon Cullen: Vision Of Design. Britain: Academy Editions.
-- Habibi, Mohsen. (2008). Dela cite a la ville. Tehran: Published By: University Of Tehran.
-- Harris, R. (1960). Signs.Language and Communication. Roatledge.
-- Jonson, Paul-Alan.(1994). The Theory of Architecture, Concepts, Themes & Practices. New York: Van Nostrand
-- lang, jon. (2007). Creating Architectural Theory,The Role Of Behavioral Sciences in Environmental Design. (Dr
Alireza. Eynifar, Trans.). Tehran: University of Tehran Press.
-- Lanot, Frank. (2000). La ville et la littérature, in: La ville et l’urbain l’état des savoirs, redigeret af. T. Paquot, M.
Lussault og S. Body-Gendrot. Paris: La Découverte. pp. 115
-- Luchinger, Arnulf. (1981). Structuralism in Architecture and Urban Planning. Stuttgart: Karl Kramer Verlag..
-- Lynch, Kevin.(1960). The Image of the city. MIT Press.
-- Lynch, Kevin.(1979). Open Space: Fredom and Contorol. In Banerjee, T. and Southworth, M.
-- Palmer, Frank.(1996). Semantics. ( Kourosh. Safavi, Trans.). Tehran: Nashre Markaz.
-- Norberg-Schulz, Christian. (1975). Meaning in Western Architecture. (Mehrdad. Qayyumi Bidhendi, Trans.). Tehran:
Published By Matn.
-- Rapoport, Amos. (1988). On the Cultural Origins of Settlements. ( Razieh. Rezazadeh, Trans.). Tehran: published
By University Of Sience & Technology.
-- Rapaport, Amos. (1990). The Meaning of the bult environment : a nonverbal communication approach. Tucson:the
university of Arizona Press.
-- Rossi, Aldo. (1973). Die Architektur der Stadt, Bauwelt Fundamente. Dusseldorf: Bertelsmann Fachverlag.
-- Safavi, Kourosh. (2007). Semantics. Tehran:Soureh mehr.
-- Salgas, jean-Pierre. (1985). J.M.G. Le Clezio: Lire c’ est S’aventurer dans l’autre . Entrtien, La Quinzaine Litteraire.
-- Scott Brown, Dennis. (1968). Lernen Von Las Vegas. Verlag Fur Architekture.
-- Tibbalds, F. (1992). Making People Frindly Tomns : Improving the Public Environments in Town and Cities. Harlow,
Essex: Longman Press.
-- Tonkiss, Fran. (1968). Space, The City and Social Theory. (Hamed Reza. Parsi., & Arezo. Aflatouni,Trans.). Tehran:
Univirsity of Tehran.
-- Venturi, Robert. (1977). Complexity and Contradiction In Architecture. London: the Architectural Press.
-- Whyte, William. (1980). Street Life Project. (Jahanshah. Pakzad,Trans.). Tehran: Armanshahr.