Investigating the Attitude of the Urban Park Consumers in Designing Parks’ Environment: Aiming to Promote Creativity of Children in Their Playgrounds

Document Type : Original Article


1 Assistant Professor of Architecture, Faculty of Architectural Engineering & Urban Design, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Tehran, Iran.

2 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Human Science, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Tehran, Iran

3 M. A. Student of Architecture, Faculty of Architectural Engineering & Urban Design, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Tehran, Iran.


Nowadays, the city parks and gardens are an integral part of the complex biological and public spaces. They play an integral part in taking care of citizens’ social and individual needs. These spaces are a major part of people’s everyday environment, including their own children. These spaces can enhance and enrich personal growth, social interaction, sense of cooperation and even teach children to be effective citizens. Due to the specific nature of children’s health and safety, a part of the functions of urban open spaces such as parks should be dedicated to them. The preparation of the environment for children as citizens and builders of the future is of great importance. In this paper, the necessity and importance of using urban parks to develop children’s creativity is emphasized. Since the objective of architecture design is to organize the environment to fulfill the human needs, one of the positive consequences of consumers’ involvement in this process is guaranteeing fulfillment of these needs so effectively that the environment could be exploited more optimally. Obviously, this approach, in addition to the desire for more children to participate and interact in the environment, can help to develop their physical, mental, and social talents and creativity. Creative ability of the users of the environment and playing are the most important factors in the study of the subject. If the playmaking process between the user and the environment is in a way that the environment affects the user to run the game, the game will, on its own, create the needed changes in children. As it was already mentioned, all psychologists endorse the view that mental phenomena are the result of interactions between organisms and the environment. Changes in the user’s sense of curiosity, in addition to the game, are the user’s manual and the food for the imagination. Imagination plays an important role in the process of playmaking. Some of the changes occur at this level of imagination and some imagination remains to be brought to reality. In other words, imagining leads to real changes in the environment which is the same as embodiment. Transferring imagination to visualize the environment is done through user’s mobility, the process of making a game that is supposed to be the most important change in the user’s environment. There are other changes that affect the user’s curiosity, imagination and visualization. In other words, the environment makes changes in the user and the first step taken towards making these changes takes place in the inner user and sense of curiosity, imagination and embodiment. The next step includes the changes made in the physical user. These changes include creating games in the context of creativity. In Piaget’s view, this fact is expressed as follows: ‘The continuous evolution of the power of the mind and the child’s learning process are the results of the conflict between his mind and the interaction with the environment and balance between the two aspects of the process. However, changes in the users, particularly, curiosity, the curious and the stimulatory effect of the space environment. Sense of curiously is influenced by the curious and motivating environment. A curious environment refers to an environment which possesses a curiosity encouraging environment. Moreover, “instigating environment” mainly refers to the features of the environment that drives a child to search and mobility. On the other hand, mobility of the users is the stimulatory effect of the environment and free activity. Free activity refers to activities that can increase the user’s risk and the role of parental involvement. To this end, what is considered of utmost importance, in this paper, is investigating the attitude of parents, as an important consumer group, towards the contribution of urban parks to developing creativity in their children. Therefore, after designing and validating the research instruments and measuring the sample size by utilizing the survey method, the attitude of 210 parents was elicited based on four factors: game making, capacity of environment to encourage children to active playing, safety, and capacity to stimulate children to play. It is evident that paying attention to these factors in the design process of urban parks plays a great role in providing for an optimal environment for developing and promoting children’s creativity.


-- Acakoff.R & Vergara.E. (1981). Creativity in problem solving & planning. European journal of operational research.
7 (12). 24 – 36.
-- Amabile, Teresa. (1998). How to Kill Creativity .Harvard Business Review. Sept-Oct. 17(26). 36 – 52.
-- Bacon, Edmund. (1988). City Planning. (Farzaneh Taheri, Trans.). Iranian Architecture. Urban Research Centre.
6 (16). 33 – 51.
-- Balram Shivanand. Dragicevic Suzana. (2005). Attitudes toward urban green space :Integrating questionnaire
surevey and collaborative GIS techniques to improve attitude measurements. Landscape and Urban Planning.
149(326). 167 - 197.
-- Csikszentmi halyi, Mihaly. (1990). Creativity- Flow and psychology of Discovery and Invention. New York:
Havaper Collins.28 (135). 28 - 45.
-- Dehkhoda. A. Dictionary. (1969). Tehran University. Volume 21(256). 17.
-- Dehkhoda. A. Dictionary. (1999). Tehran University. Vol 4.(256).17.
-- Delaware, A. (2005). Theoretical and Practical Research in The Humanities And Social Sciences. third edition,
Tehran, growth Publications. 9(16). 25 – 34.
-- Esfandiari, M. (1998). Vision of Nature in the urban habitat. Partners magazine. Municipality. 60(12). 45- 57.
-- Gall, Meredith, Borg, Walter Vgal, Joyce. (2005).Quantitative and Qualitative Research Methods in Educational
Psychology. (Reza Nasr et al., trans.). First Edition, Tehran, The Press. 11(24), 16 – 29.
-- Gray, M. A. (1999). Participation in the management and ownership. published by the Center for Public Management.
Tehran. 8(27). 22 – 43.
-- Ghasemi, A. (2002). Community participation in education. published by the Institute of Education. Tehran.)28(9 .
35 – 22.
-- Grandeur, H., Design principles based urban parks Artqakhlaqyt children. PhD thesis, Architecture, University of
Science and Technology.9 (28), 22 – 35.
-- Karoo, J. (1994). Entrepreneurship, Creativity and Organization. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. 64(165), 37 – 98.
-- Lang J. (1987). Creating architectural Theory: The Role of the Behavioral Sciences in Environmental Design. New
York;Wokingham:Van Nostrand Reinhold, London.11 (14), 16 – 24.
-- M. Qasim, M. (2002). Environment for Children. Shahid Beheshti University.31 (43). 14 – 18.
-- Myers, DG (1988). Social Psychology. McGraw-Hill. International Ed. 2nd Edition. New York13-27 .)16( 5 ..
-- Mansouri, Seyyed Amir. (2005). Introduction to Landscape Architectural knowledge. Garden Journal. No. II
years. Institute Review56 – 31 .)21( 14..
-- Mansouri. Amir. (2005). Introduction to Landscape Architectural Knowledge. Journal of the garden. second edition
13(25). 7 - 11.
-- Mortazavi, Shahrnaz. (2002). Environmental Psychology and Its Applications. Press Center. Tehran: Shahid Beheshti
University. 22(14). 15 – 24.
-- Piaget, Jean. (1988). Time and Mental Development of Children. (M. Karimi, trans.). education. second edition. Tehran. 14(54). 26 – 65.
-- Piaget, Jean & et al. (1988). Child Psychology. translated into success ornament, reed Publication, Tehran.8 (25),
35 – 46.
-- Riahi, A. (2002). Play A Role In Fostering Creativity And Children. Tehran, Publication Board, 13(20), 64 – 70.
-- Rothstein, P.R.`(1990). Educational Psychology. New York: McGraw Hill, Inc. 11(45), 30 – 41.
-- Shvlts, Doan. (1984). Patterns of Normal Personality, Psychology Perfection. (G. Merry, trans.). New Publication,
Tehran.28 (78), 61 – 67.
-- Scholes, Krystsn Nvrbrg. (1975). Universe, Space, Architecture. (Mohammad Hassan Hafez, Trans.). Publications,
Tehran.16 (25), 26 – 46
-- Stevens. (1994) Certain Translations.8 (27), 22 – 43.
-- Singer, Dorothy G.; Rvnsn, A. Tracy. (1984) How a Child Thinks, (M. Karimi, trans.). education, second edition,
Tehran.88 – 61 .)74(20 .
-- Stein, Morris.(1976). Creativity as an Intrapersonal Process. Parnes, Sidney, J.A Source Book for Creative Thinking,
New York, Char lea, Scribner, Sons, 14(26), 35 – 43.
-- Thampson, I .H. (2002). Ecology, Community and Delight A Trivalent Approach to Landscape. Elsevier. 48 (9).
28 – 37.
-- Turner, Tom.(1989). As The City’s Landscape.( Nouri, F., Trans.). Processing and Publishing Companies Tehran
Urban Planning .8 (27). 31 – 56.
-- The legal and technical assistance services tax. the value of real estate transactions in Tehran, Shemiran, Rey.
Publications and process planning (municipal Tehran). Tehran. 8(27). 31 – 65.
-- Unseco.(1987) Design Ideas for Play Spaces for Three to Six Year Olds. 22(14), 15 – 24.
-- article, Qassem. (2002). Environmental Psychology: New knowledge in the Service of Architecture and Environmental
Design. Journal of Fine Arts. Tehran University Publications. 10(18). 15 - 20
-- Pakzad, Jahanshah. (2010). Theoretical Urban Design Process. Shahidi Press. third edition. Tehran. 14(21). 31 –
-- Whyte W.H. (1988). City. Rediscovering the Center. New York: Doubleday.7 (19 ). 45 – 64.