Comparative Study of the Existing Condition of Kababian Neighborhood with the 2005 Comprehensive Development Plan of City of Hamadan Using SpaceSyntax Software

Document Type : Original Article


1 M. A. in Urban Design, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Development, Imam Khomeini International University, Ghazvin, Iran

2 M. A. in Urban Planning, Faculty of Art & Architecture, Islamic Azad University of Hamedan, Hamedan, Iran.


Cities are continuously evolving like living organism. The changes demand prethought plans and necessitate the attention to spatial characteristics respecting the citizens’ behavior. Urban systems are highly complex objects that emerge from the interactions between many different actors and agencies, each making decisions which are often contingent on those made by others, and which emerge from the interactions of different social, economic and physical systems, each with their own rules. Gaining a well founded understanding of urban growth and change processes over historical timescales will be vital if we are to secure sustainable pathways for urban development and development control. Cities are complex systems composed of non-linear and multiple scale iterations of spatial and physical heterogeneous components. Despite the complexity, these systems are self-organized and generate socio-spatial patterns resulting from the human activities. The urban form is among the most stable of these patterns that not only structure those human activities, but also sets limits to the future reconfigurations. It can be described by size (scale), geometrical and topological properties, represented by vector and matrix datasets, and associated to distinct attributes. Recent computing processes, as well as the extended interest on the subject, allowed the emergence of distinct analytical procedures within the context of independent disciplines along with their theoretical and methodological foundations. It has been 50 years since the comprehensive plans have been applied to Iranian cities. The formation basis of these plans originated from the modern movement organizing the four-fold performance of accommodation, job, commuting and leisure. Due to implementation of these plans in recent years, the gradual destruction of traditional structures of Iranian cities has been witnessed. The chaos in implementation of these plans has affected the citizens’ behavior to the extent that some bizarre behaviors are seen from citizens. This shows the inattention of the comprehensive plans to people’s mental image. Based on recent advances in software, architecture and urbanization in the formof semantic information, it is tried to use space syntax to analyze the neighborhood space in matrix of features. In this research, at first, 4 parameters were introduced for analyzing the structure of the selected area. These parameters were connectivity, control, choice and integration. Then, the considered area was computed using these parameters. The present research has been carried out in Kababian neighborhood of Hamadan. This city has been settled by different tribes. The city is supposed to have been built by Diuox. The pattern of the city’s texture is composed of radial and ring patterns which are formed in 1928. This spiral texture consists of concentric circles which are connected by six main streets winding up to a central square and belt circles which divide the texture into sectors of a circle. Hamadan consists of about 50 big and small neighborhoods each of which has a certain border. These borders are specified by passages, intersections or certain places. Kababian is one of these neighborhoods which can be called a heritage from the past. This neighborhood dates back to Qajar period and is located between Shariati, Bu Ali and Khajehrashid aldin Blvd. In the next steps, figures that were taken by Depthmap Software (spaxce syntax software) were analyzed. The results obtained by the software shows lack of success in comprehensive plan for citizens’ behavior. It is worth mentioning that the weaknesses of the comprehensive plan outweigh its strengths. In the present research, the present situation and the comprehensive plan in two general sections were compared. In the first section, the Kababian axis, and in the second section, all the neighborhoods were analyzed. In surveying the parameters in Kababian axis, the fading role of connectivity in comprehensive plan in connectivity parameter were observed. Analysis of the whole neighborhood showed that the hierarchy is declining. Identity of an Iranian city is being ruined because of lack of attention to the spatial domains and eligibility for pedestrians. Depth reduction for the whole neighborhood has led to greater vitality. On the other hand, reduction of integrity parameter, due to reduction of connection between the streets, has changed the quality of life and has separated the neighborhood in scattered sections bring about behavioral conflict at the same time. Having done the analyses, a questionnaire, based on Lickert analytical method, was distributed among the residents of the neighborhood to assure getting results with space syntax. This questionnaire focused on the behavioral effect resulted from the implementation of the comprehensive plan in social life. It validates our way of analyzing the master plan of Kababian quarters.


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