Studying the Identity of Nishapur during the First Few Centuries of the Islamic Era through the Design of the Household Items: with an Emphasis on the Symbolic and Mythical Symbols of Ancient Iran, Sample: Household Earthenware Belonging to the Early Islamic Era to the Fifth Century AH

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Applied Arts, Art University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.

2 2Ph.D Candidate of Art Research, Art University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.


عنوان مقاله [English]

Studying the Identity of Nishapur during the First Few Centuries of the Islamic Era through the Design of the Household Items: with an Emphasis on the Symbolic and Mythical Symbols of Ancient Iran, Sample: Household Earthenware Belonging to the Early Islamic Era to the Fifth Century AH

نویسندگان [English]

  • Samad Samanian 1
  • Pardis Bahmani 2
1 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Applied Arts, Art University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
2 2Ph.D Candidate of Art Research, Art University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Identity is one of those symbols which are influenced by variety of factors. Since civilization and culture consists of physical and spiritual manifestations left behind by the mankind throughout the history, the tools and the items used by them becomes extremely important when studying their culture. By studying the symbols and the myths which are reflection of the people who used these items, one could gain insight into how these symbols and myths influenced their design. In this paper, it has been tried to take a look into determining the association of the ancient Iranian myths and symbols with the design of early centuries of the Islamic Era household objects in Nishapur. In other words, the main goal of this study is to bring into light the role and the influence of the ancient Iranian myths and symbols, which originated from Nishapur’s geographical location and climate and was manifested in design and processing of the household objects. The hypothesis of this research is: the ancient Iranian symbols and myths have influenced the design of the household objects during the early centuries of the Islamic Era. To examine the hypothesis, first, Nishapur’s geography reviewed, and then, the household dishes, during the aforementioned centuries, are briefly introduced. Finally, through introducing samples, the ways the ancient symbols and myths have influenced the design of these objects have been analyzed. Majority of the ancient symbols and myths have been inspired by the natural elements, especially, water, fire, animals and plants. For example, designs off fish, Anahita, Lily, and goat-antelope are just a few of the designs which not only were part of the myths and the symbols of the ancient Iran, but also have been used in designs after Islam and are grouped with the symbols associated with water. Moreover, symbols such as the story of Siavash, Izad Soroush, up-pointing triangle, lion and circle are concepts which have been designed in association with light and fire. Ultimately, the influence of the ancient beliefs on design of the household dishes during the early centuries of the Islamic Era in Iran in four groups of symbols, geometric, plant, animal and human were analyzed.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Ancient Iranian Symbols and Myths
  • Nishapur
  • Nishapur’s Household Dishes and Pottery
  • Early Islamic Centuries

-         Aram, A. (1987). Science in Islam, Tehran, Iran: Soroush Press.

-         Amozgar, J. (2005). Mythological History of Iran, Tehran, Iran: Samt.

-         Asabrgr, A. (2000). Cultural Critique (Homeyra Moshyrzadeh Trans) Tehran, Iran: Open Publishing.

-         Ahmad panah, S. (2001). The Art letter: Nishapur Pottery Aesthetic Designs, 12, 27-5. Ashpiler, B. (1990). The First Centuries of Islamic History of Iran, Volume II, (Maryam Mir Ahmadi Trans) Tehran, Iran: Scientific and Cultural Publications.

-         Afshar Mohajer, K. (2000). The Symbols in the Traditional Iranian art, The Art letter, 8, 51-63.

-         Blair, Sh. (1991). Image of Paradise in Islamic Art, Hanover: Hood Museum of Art

-         Blair, Sh.)1992(.The Monumental Inscriptions from Early Islamic Iran and Transoxiana.

-         Burdek, B.)2005(.History and Practice of Product Design, London: Birkhouser Press

-         Dimand, Ms. (1937). ‘’Studies in Islamic Ornament, Art Islamic, Vol (Iv), 293-337

-         Dehkhoda, A. (1999). Loghatname, Tehran: Tehran University.

-         Ehsani, M. (2003). Seven thousand years of Iranian art in metalworking, Tehran: Scientific and Cultural Publications.

-         Frye, R. N. (1984). Golden Age Culture of Iran (Massoud rajbnia Trans) Tehran: Sorush.

-         Ferrier, RA W. (2005). Iranian art (Parviz Marzban Trans) Tehran: Farzan.

-         Fokayy, S. (1992). Ideal glass-glass-Iranian, Tehran: Cultural Heritage Organization.

-         Grub, E. & George M. (2000). Architectural History and social context, Tehran: Molly Publication

-         Grabar, O. (2000). Design of Islamic Art, Tehran; Institute for Humanities and Cultural Studies.

-         Hausrer, A. (2003). Philosophy, Art History (Mohammad Taghi Trans) Tehran: Neghah.

-         Hynlz, J. (2006). Understanding the Iranian Mythology (Jaleh Amozgar and Ahmed Tafazzoli) Tehran: Samt.

-         Hynlz, J. (2009). Iranian myths ( Mahnaz Shayesteh Far Trans) Tehran :The Institute for the Study of Islamic Art.

-         Jamasp, D.H. (1907) Vendidad, Avesta Text with Pahlavi Translation and Commentary and Glossarial Index, vol (1) Bombay: The Texts

-         James, W.)1982(.Nishapur :metalwork of the early Islamic period :Metropolitan Museum of Art New York

-         Jobs, G. (2000). The first book of animals symbols, (Mohammad Reza Zndpoor Trans) Tehran: Movafagh publisher.

-         Jonaidi, F. (2007). Emigration of Ariayan life, Tehran: Balkh Publication.

-         Jonaidi, F. (2004). Nishapur Sun City gates. Tehran: Balkh Publication.

-         Krippendarff, K. (1997). Semantic Qualities in Design, Farm Diskurs, 11, 45-50.

-         Khalaj Amir Hosseini, M. (2008). Secrets Hidden in the Painting, Tehran: Ketan mah.

-         Kodashtayn, S. (2008), Collection of Islamic Art (glass work), Tehran: Carengie Publishing.

-         Kiani, M. (2000).the history of ceramics and pottery in Iran, Tehran: Paeez

-         Labaf, R. (2004). “Proof of assumptions about the cultural capital of Iran in the Islamic period.” Gamers.

-         Saba, M. (2005). Encyclopedia of Iranian Traditional Arts, Tehran: The Light of Wisdom.

-         Metz, A. (1983). The Islamic civilization in the fourth century or Islamic Renaissance, Tehran: Amir Kabir Publications.

-         Mohsenian Rad, M. (2003). Communication Studies, Tehran: Soroush Publications.

-         Mohammadi-Nejad, F. (2002). The Product Design Process, Tehran: Bamdad Ketab

-         Pilditch, J. (1970). Communication by Design: A study in Corporate Identity. London: Mcgraw Hill

-         Prada, E. (2004). Art of Ancient Iran (Yousef Majid Zadeh Trans) Teharn: Institute of Tehran University Publications and Printing.

-         Pirnia, H. (2004). Historical Mythological History of Iran, Tehran: Hermand Publishing.

-         Reed, H. (2009). The Meaning of art (Najaf Darya Bandari Trans) Tehran: Scientific and Cultural Publishers

-        Tabatabai, J. (1996). Khaje Nezamolmolk, Tehran: Tarh e no.

-         Taqi, B. (2011). Animal symbols of fortune in the Shahnameh, International Conference Shahnameh millennium singing, Vice President of Research, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, 349-365.

-         Ward, R. (2004). Islamic metalworking, Tehran: Institute for the Study of Islamic Art.

-         Vayh, G. (1984). Islamic Art in the First Centuries, Tehran (the unknown).

-         Wolf, H. (1993). Ancient Iranian Handicrafts (Cyrus Ebrahimzadeh Trans) Tehran: The Islamic Revolution.

-         Zaimarzn, M. (2004). Introduction to Semiotics of Art - Print publishing,Tehran.

-         Zamani, A. (1976), The Influence of Sassanian Art in Islamic Art, writing the Ministry of Culture and Art Publishing Office, Tehran.

-         Zanganeh, E. (1997). Nishapur City and the Most Important Events of its History, Mashhad: Islamic Research Foundation Astan Quds Razavi, 54-55.

-        Zarin Kobe, A. (1985). The Iranian People before Islam. Tehran: Amir Kabir.