بررسی ویژگی های طراحی فضای بسته هنرستان های دخترانه با رویکرد ارتقاء خلاقیت هنرجویان

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار معماری، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه تربیت دبیر شهید رجایی، تهران، ایران.

2 استادیار علوم انسانی، دانشکده علوم انسانی، دانشگاه تربیت دبیر شهید رجایی، تهران، ایران.

3 دانش آموخته کارشناسی ارشد مهندسی معماری، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه تربیت دبیر شهیدرجایی، تهران،ایران.

4 دانش آموخته کارشناسی ارشد مهندسی معماری، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه تربیت دبیر شهیدرجایی، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

امروزه به دلیل تغییرات روز افزون و پرشتاب جوامع بشری و نقش کلیدی تعلیم و تربیت در تربیت نسل خلاق به منظور توان رو به رو شدن با این تغییرات، اهمیت و ضرورت خلاقیت و عوامل مؤثر بر آن در تعلیم و تربیت بیش از هر زمان دیگری آشکار شده است. خلاقیت و نوآوری از مهم ترین اهداف آموزش و پرورش و جزء مهم ترین رسالت سازمان های آموزشی است، هدف از تحقیق حاضر، دستیابی به معیارهای طراحی فضاهای هنرستان دخترانه با تأ کید بر بهره گیری از قابلیت های محیطی مؤثر بر ذهن و رفتار نوجوانان و رویکرد ارتقاء خلاقیت آنان است. در این تحقیق، بر پایه تلفیق نظریات مرتبط با موضوع تحقیق، از روش تحقیق پیمایشی استفاده شده و بر اساس نتایج تحقیق، معیارهای معمارانه برای طراحی فضاهای آموزشی در جهت ارتقاء انگیزش و خلاقیت هنرجویان استنتاج شده است. تا با بکارگیری این معیارها بتوان فضاها را به گونه ای طراحی کرد که قدرت کنجکاوی و ابتکار هنرجویان ارتقاء یابد. روش تحقیق این پژوهش، از نوع زمینه یابی و کاربردی است. جامعه آماری در این پژوهش شامل کلیه هنرآموزان شهر تهران در سال تحصیلی 90-91 می باشند. روش نمونه گیری، خوشه ای چند مرحله ای است و حجم نمونه در این تحقیق 124 هنرآموز می باشد. برای جمع آوری اطلاعات تحقیق، از پرسشنامه های محقق ساخته استفاده شده است. اطلاعات حاصله پس از طبقه بندی، با به مقتضای نوع متغیرها و ارتباط آ نها با یکدیگر توسط آزمون تی مورد تجزیه و تحلیل ،SPSS استفاده از نرم افزار آماری قرار گرفته، نتایج زیر به دست آمده است.  ایجاد انعطاف پذیری عملکردی در فضاهای آموزشی  ایجاد تنوع در فضاهای آموزشی  ایجاد ارتباط درون و بیرون در فضاهای آموزشی  ایجاد تنوع فرم در فضاهای آموزشی

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Indoor Design Features of Girls’ Technical-Vocational Schools(TVS) with the Approach to Promote the Trainees’ Creativity

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hamid Reza Azemati 1
  • Bahram Saleh Sedghpour 2
  • Zahra Jalili 3
  • Leyla Baratpour 4
1 Associate Professor of Architecture, Faculty of Urban and Architecture, ShahidRajaee Teacher Training University, Tehran, Iran.
2 Assistant Professor of Humanities, Faculty of Humanities, ShahidRajaee Teacher Training University, Tehran, Iran.
3 M.A. in Architecture, Faculty of Urban and Architecture, ShahidRajaee Teacher Training University, Tehran, Iran.
4 M.A. in Architecture, Faculty of Urban and Architecture, ShahidRajaee Teacher Training University, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Nowadays, regarding to the rapid and increasing changes in the human societies, the key role of education in training, the creative generation, the need to be able to encounter with the changes, the significance and necessity of creativity and its affecting factors have become more and more obvious in education. Therefore, creativity is one of the most influential factors affecting education which integrating it with the body and ways of designing environment plays an undeniable important role. Considering the nature of Technical-Vocational Schools (TVS), as discovering, creativity and production, either in the artistic or technical perspective, a need for an environment to provide a basis to improve the creativity and enlivenment is felt. Taking into consideration the inter-disciplinary nature of issues related to designing the environment and the lack of enough theories in the field of designing to make an educational environment, the role of behavioral science, psychology and the psychology of environment in this study seem to be undeniable. So a need to investigate educational environment in terms of its influence on growth and creativity has to be strongly considered.The present study aims at achieving the criteria for designing appropriate educational environment in Girls’ Technical-Vocational Schools (TVS) with an emphasis on the environmental capabilities affecting the mind and behaviors of the young people and the emphasis on an approach to improve their creativity as well. In the present study, the survey method is based on the related literature. Moreover, based on other conducted researches in this filed, the architectural criteria for designing educational environmentto promote student`s motivation and creativity have been deduced to be implemented in a way that it can promote the power of curiosity and innovation in students. The method used in the present study was both survey and practical. The population in this study included all the Technical-Vocational Schools (TVS) students in Tehran during the 2011-2012 years. Multi–stage cluster sampling has been used to find the samples. To determine the framework for sampling, first 22 districts of Tehran were considered as 22 clusters.Among these clusters, districts 2, 6, 9, 6, 13, 16 were randomly selected. And then from the existing TVS in each district only one of them was randomly selected and then from each TVS 24 to 25 art teachers were randomly selected. Fulfilling the above mentioned procedure 124 art teachers were selected as a population. In the questionnaire, it was tried to determine the variables of this study based on its purpose and the questions of this research. To do so, before preparing a questionnaire a content-purpose table was made in which the variables of each research question were specified and the questionnaire was prepared considering all those variables. Taking into consideration the effective variables in this study namely, motivation, curiosity and innovation, a three-part questionnaire was designed in which 17 questions were about motivation. These questions can be divided into two groups. The first group of questions is about the relationship between novelty in material, color and light used in the classroom and students` motivation. The second group of questions, however, is about the relationship between utilizing the compositionand continuity of open and close environment and student`s motivation in creativity. It is interesting to note that 13 questions in the questionnaire have been allocated to curiosity.This part is related to questions which investigate the relationship between functionalflexibilities and student`s curiosity and creativity. The remaining six questions are about innovation which investigate the relationship between utilizing varieties in the appearanceand student`s innovation for creativity. To evaluate the reliability, Cronbach`s alpha coefficient was employed and the calculated coefficient was 0.83. To determine the validity of questionnaires, both face validity and content validity were deployed. After collecting the questionnaire, the collected data was coded and then was analyzed by theSPSS statistical software. Based on the type of the variables and their interrelations by using T-Test the following results have been obtained:
- Creating functional flexibility in educational environment
- Creating variety in educational environments
- Building relationship between inside and outside of educational environment
- Creating variety in the appearance of the educational environment
Considering the mentioned issues, one can come up with this conclusion that the components of the physical environment lead to promotion in curiosity, motivation and innovation.It also influences on the creativity process and a creative aptitude will be flourished in an appropriate environment. Therefore, providing a suitable atmosphere can be very influential on flourishing people creativity.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Architecture
  • Educational environment
  • Creativity Promotion
  • Technical-Vocational School Design
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