شناخت و تحلیل مسائلِ طراحی محیط معماری و شهرسازی از منظر اسلامی (در گستره قرآن و روایات)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار معماری، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه علم و صنعت ایران، تهران، ایران.

2 استادیار معماری، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه علم و صنعت ایران، تهران، ایران.

3 دانشجوی دکترای معماری اسلامی، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه هنر اصفهان، اصفهان، ایران.

چکیده

اسلام ارزش های تعالی جویانه ای را در زمینه شهر و محیط زندگی انسانی مطرح کرده که امروزه با ظهور فرهنگ جدید و غفلت از ابعاد معنوی انسان مورد بی مهری قرار گرفته است. برای احیاء این ارز شها در شهرسازی معاصر لازم است این ارز شها از حالت عام و کلی به صورت مسأله تخصصی تبدیل شوند. هدف از این مقاله طرح مسائل شهرسازی اسلامی و استخراج اصول مربوطه برای طراحان شهری و معماران می باشد. روش مورد استفاده در این مقاله مراجعه به منابع خطاناپذیر اسلامی و استنباط و استدلال منطقی است و با بررسی مبانی و متون دینی در مقایسه شیوه سنتی و تاریخی ساخت و ساز از یک سو و نیازهای جدید از سوی دیگر تلاش می شود اصول و ارزش ها برای تعالی انسان در شهر استخراج شود. مهم ترین این ارزش ها را می توان در کلیت شهر در عرصه هایی همچون ارزش شهر به منظور بسترسازی برای اشتغال، تفریح و سلامت جسمی، نظارت عمومی و توجه به اظهار شعائر دینی در عرصه شهر دانست. در محله نیز مسجد به عنوان مرکز محله با تشویق مردم به حضور در آن مطرح شده و بازار و مراکز فروش به عنوان تأمین کننده مایحتاج مطرح می شود. کلیت محل هها از نظر شأن فرهنگی و دینی اعتبارهای مختلف دارند و لازم است در انتخاب محله اسلامی این اعتبار مطالعه گردد. خان هها نیز مهم ترین عرصه خصوصی و حریم خانوادگی بوده و نباید استقلال و حرمت آن ها با هر نوع مزاحمت همجواری خدشه دار شود. در مجموع هنگامی خانه، محله و شهر اسلامی خواهیم داشت، که معماران و شهرسازان ما با شناخت کافی از حکمت نظری و عملی اسلام در حوزه برنامه ریزی و طراحی محیط اقدام نمایند. بدیهی است که سایر ارکان شهر یعنی قوانین، مدیران و شهروندان نیز می بایست از مبانی اسلامی تبعیت نمایند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Recognition and Analysis of Environmental Issues of Architectureand Urban Design, From the Viewpoint of Islam(The Scope of the Qur’an and Narrations)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Abdolhamid Noghrehkar 1
  • Mahdi Hamzenejad 2
  • Sedighe Moeinmehr 3
1 Associate Professor of Architecture, School of Architecture & Environmental Design, Iran University of Science & Technology, Tehran, Iran.
2 Assistant Professor of Architecture, School of Architecture & Environmental Design, Iran University of Science & Technology, Tehran, Iran.
3 Ph.D. Student of Islamic Architecture, School of Architecture and Urban Design, Art University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Islam has proposed the transcendent value in human life and environment which today, with the emergence of a new culture and negligence of the spiritual levels of human, has been ignored. For revival these values in contemporary urbanism, It is necessary that these values change from the general form to the special issue of urbanism. This issue begins by introducing each Islamic principle and describing their various levels and possible conflicts that occur today. Finding a fairly logical and comprehensive ultimate answer can only be possible with a detailed understanding of Islamic priorities. The purpose of this paper is to describe the issues of urbanization and extraction of relevant principles for urban designers and designs. The method of this paper refers to Islamic resources and logical reasoning. By studying principles of religious literature compared with traditional and historical construction on one hand and construction of new requirements on the other hand, this paper attempts to conclude general values and principles discussed in Islam for human transcendence .The most important values to be considered in the whole city are in the areas such as value for preparation for employment, gaining knowledge, thinking, recreation and physical health, public oversight, attention to religious rituals such as the ritual and symbolic aspects of Islamic thought in the city. In the neighborhood mosque as a neighborhood center, by encouraging people to participate in, with market and shopping centers (not gathering and recreation center) are discussed. Totality of neighborhoods in terms of cultural and religious dignity have different reputation. For choose the Islamic neighborhood studying this validity is required. In the choice of the Muslim neighborhood, relationship and social organization of a neighborhood is the most important principles of Islamic urbanism. And yet houses are the most of the private places of families and their respect and independence should not be affected by any interference from neighbors. This study investigates the impact of human interaction on implementing strategies to strengthen the religion community pays. Finally, the above principles regarding to the issues have been considered. Also, we have Islamic homes, neighborhood and city created by architects and urban planners with sufficient knowledge of theoretical and practical wisdom of Islam in the area of environmental planning and design for human.Obviously, the other elements of the City, such as laws, managers and citizens should follow the Islamic principles. Although the present study and the strengthening of social interaction issues prevalent in today’s research world and Iran, but it’s so far that theoretical foundations of Islam - Iranian will be investigated. This study aims to study religious rulings and interpretations of Quran and traditions (Citing sources and interpret the Shiite thinkers according to historical Islamic documents– Iran), investigate special architecture and urbanism and find principles and practical methods for them. This article was done in order to identify the principles, because in the field of religious studies, (have on the diversity and multiplicity of methods) to answer the question the model of interdisciplinary studies should be used. Type of the prevailing methodology of the research is analytical logical. In this regard among the traditional cities the same order of social, cultural and religious diversity are significant. Human social life forms one of the important aspects of Islamic values, which has been neglected by the emergence of a new culture of human communities. To restore these values in the contemporary urban, they may need to regenerate to become the expert in urban science, with a statement of each principle and the description of its different aspects and realizing the potential contradictions that today occur begins. As stated, the purpose of this paper is the issues of Islamic urbanism and obtaining the principles for urban designers. As stated, the method used in this paper is referred to Islam and deduced and logical reasoning. By study the foundations of Religious texts in compared with the traditional and historical construction in one side and the new requirements in another side, the general values and principles in Islam will be achieved for excellence of human in city, neighborhood and house. The most important fundamentals and principles have derived from the visible structure in the Islamic living environment of these values in the whole city, such as: attention the religious rituals, the need to promote public participation in strengthening interactions, to consider religious rituals, respect the rights of other citizens, in every type of construction, prohibition the construction of detriment to others.

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  • Islam
  • City
  • Neighborhood
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