تبیین ماهیت رویکرد "کیفیت زندگی شهری" در تئوری های طراحی شهری

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد شهرسازی، پردیس هنرهای زیبا، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران.

2 پژوهشگر دکتری شهرسازی، پردیس هنرهای زیبا، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران.

3 استادیار معماری، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه بین المللی امام خمینی (ره)، قزوین، ایران.

چکیده

کیفیت زندگی شهری یکی از رویکردهای جدید به مسائل شهری است که به موجب آن طراحان و برنامه ریزان شهری راهکارهایی جهت تحقق آن ارائه م یدهند که نشان از اقدامات جدی در خلق تغییرات مثبت در محیط زندگی شهری در گونه های » کیفیت زندگی شهری « است. هدف اصلی این پژوهش تبیین یک چارچوب مفهومی برای بررسی ماهیت مختلف تئوری های طراحی شهری است تا از طریق آن بتوان به فهم عمیق تری نسبت به موضوعات اساسی در این حوزه پرداخت، به سطح و روش به کارگیری آن جامعیت بخشید و ابعاد مختلف این رویکرد از قبیل جه تگیری فلسفی و مبانی معرفتی را روشن ساخت. برای انجام این پژوهش، بخشی از گونه شناسی های مرتبط با انواع تئوری های طراحی شهری از دیدگاه های مختلف بررسی شده و براساس آن با تکیه بر روش استنباط استقرایی و تحلیلی به تبیین ماهیت این رویکرد در میان گونه های مختلف تئوری های طراحی شهری پرداخته شد. رویکرد کیفیت زندگی شهری در پی انتقادات به شیو ه برنامه ریزی خردگرا وارد مطالعات شهری شده و در سطوح مختلف قابلیت کاربرد را دارد. این رویکرد با شناخت و تفسیر وضعیت موجود از جنبه های عینی و ذهنی، فرآیندهایی را جهت ارتقاء ارزش های زندگی شهری ارائه می کند. اگرچه غایت این رویکرد، برنامه ریزی و طرح ریزی برای ابعاد کالبدی و عینی شهر است، ولی شناخت کیفیت موجود شرایط زندگی و تعریف ارزش های هنجاری براساس دیدگاه و ذهنیت ساکنین می باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Clarifying the Nature of the “Urban Quality of Life”: An Approach inthe Urban Design Theories

نویسندگان [English]

  • Seyed Hossien Bahrayni 1
  • Maliheh Ali Ghaleh Babakhani 2
  • Reza Sameh 3
1 Professor of Urbanism, College of Fine Arts, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
2 Ph.D. Student of Urbanism, College of Fine Arts, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
3 Assistant Professor of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture & Urban Development, International University of Imam Khomeini (IKIU), Qazvin, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Theory is a tool for descriptions, interpretations, predictions and recommendations so it is inevitable in the field of urban design. In other words, urban design can’t be done without any theory; whether there is any awareness about the existence of this theory or not. There are several reasons for clarifying the importance of theories in urban studies. Friedman stated three basic requirements for urban theories: prediction, prescription, evaluation and judgment in the action. Also Lang stated that theory in “chaotic situations helps understanding” and “saves the ideas and knowledge”. Variety of theories in the field of urban studies and particularly in urban design indicates that the typology of theories is important. Typology helps to classify and organize topics in the mind. Yiftachel and Tiryakian classify three basic principles for typology which are: correcting ambiguities and missing concepts, organized by definition of parameters of a topic, and facilitating the creation theory by defining the characteristics of the main components for further research. Development of urban design theories on the one hand and the need to understand and analyze their content to use on the other hand, explain the need to identify the nature of new approaches in typology of urban design theories. Among all the existing issues of urban design studies what has the greatest impact on the nature of cities is urban quality of life that is rooted in the people’s lives and fulfilling the demands and needs of its residents. Quality of life is one of topics in many fields. It began on 1930s and continued through researchers’ efforts to define, evaluate and measure quality of life from different perspectives. Nevertheless the beginning application of this approach in urban studies referred to 1980s. Although the quality of life has attractiveness and common sense but there isn’t yet an accepted definition. Experts and organizations in different disciplines have provided different definitions for quality of life. Considering different definitions for quality of life, it can be used as an attractiveness of a location and the degree of compliance and expectations which is received by individuals. In other words, it is affected by objective and subjective aspects. The aim of this study is to explain a conceptual framework in order to investigate the nature of the urban quality of life approach in urban design theories to understand the main issues and different aspects in this field. Process of research is based on typology of urban design theories. It also has developed a framework and some parameters for doing research. This framework is provided based on library studies and scientific resources. The nature of this approach is explained by comparative and analytic method. Arguments and analysis are done by complaining the properties of urban quality of life with different types of urban design theories. Parameters that considered in this study to explain the nature of quality of life in urban design theories include: philosophical orientation, topic, foundations of studies, the relationship between human and environment, environmentalfactors, epistemic and scale application. Based on this analysis, the nature of urban quality of life approach in urban design theories is: This approach is based on understanding and interpretation of objective and subjective factors of existing conditions. On the other hand it provides general and specific values for the desired future conditions which can be categorized in positive-normative theories. Quality of life identifies and interprets the economic, social and environmental current
status of the city and provides processes in urban planning and urban design for the improvement of urban life values so we can categorize it in substantive and procedural theories.
This approach considers both environmental and human domains. In other words, it does not only focus on objective or subjective domains, it tries to improve residents’ subjective perceptions based on physical changes so classify in probability environmental theories. Quality of life is classified in three-component theories because it considers physical, activate and mental thinking domains. Residents and subjective aspects have a significant role in urban quality of life approach and it’s possible based on negotiation with them and participation of them in planning process, so this approach is close to experience-oriented approaches. This approach is applicable at different geographical scales, from over-city to neighborhood scale, however, indicators, components and concepts are different in every scale.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Urban Quality of Life
  • Urban Design
  • Typology
  • Normative Theories
  • Objective Aspects
  • Subjective Aspects
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