موضوعات مرزی در رویکرد فرارشته ای به طراحی محیطی در ایران از دیدگاه اساتید

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار طراحی شهری، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه تربیت دبیر شهیر رجایی، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

امروزه از مقیاس طراحی اشیاء و مبلمان گرفته تا طراحی منطقه ای و شهری، در داخل طراحی محیطی جای می گیرند. طراحان محیطی اعم از معماران، معماران منظر، برنامه ریزان و طراحان شهری، با مقولات و موضوعاتی فرا رشته خودشان ارتباط دارند. این مقولات که در حوزه ها و زمینه های تخصصی سایر علوم و فنون جای میگیرند، از اهمیت بسیار زیادی در رشد و توسعه مرزهای دانش و فناوری در سطح کشور برخوردارند. از این رو توجه ویژه اساتید و حرفه مندان رشته های طراحی محیطی به این موضوعات و بررسی روندها و رویه های به کارگیری صحیح و اصولی آن ها در میان مباحث اصلی رشته ای، حائز اهمیت است. این مقاله با هدف کنکاشی در شناخت مهم ترین موضوعات و مقولات فرارشته ای مطرح در طراحی محیطی، به بیان دیدگاه اساتید در این زمینه م یپردازد. از روش های پیمایشی و تحلیل محتوا سود جسته و سعی در معرفی حوزه های تأثیرگذار پیرامونی طراحی محیطی در رشد و توسعه این زمینه تخصصی دارد. مطابق این شیوه، پرسشنامه ای باز پاسخ از بیست استاد رشته های طراحی شهری، معماری و معماری منظر در سطح دانشگاه های تهران، شهید بهشتی و علم و صنعت ایران و در فاصله زمانی تیرماه تا مرداد ماه 1391 تهیه شد. یافته های این نوشتار نشان می دهد که پنج مقوله مرزی اکولوژی محیط، جهانی شدن، هویت ایرانی  اسلامی، اجتماع محلی و آموزش فرارشته ای جزء مهم ترین دغدغه های اساتید نسبت به موضوعات فرارشته ای طراحی محیطی در ایران می باشند. همچنین معرفی ضرورت توجه به نگاه های فرارشته ای و کاربرد موضوعات مرزی در طراحی محیطی نیز جزء دیگر نتایج این تحقیق به شمار می رود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Boundary Concepts in Trans-disciplinary Approach to EnvironmentalDesign in Iran, from the Viewpoints of Professors

نویسنده [English]

  • Sina Razzaghi-asl
Assistant Professor in Urban Design, ShahidRajaee Teacher Training University, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Environmental designers and planners deal with some aspects and themes used in trans-disciplinary era. Today, the scale of objects and furniture to regional and urban design, environmental design is in the fall. So many professions and specialties including urban design, landscape design, architecture, urban planning and industrial design are considered as environmental design. These subjects and matters are very important in developing limits and borders of disciplines. This area varies from medical sciences to human sciences and technology. This approach causes professionals and researchers to make an especial attention. The recognition of mechanisms, procedures and principles of usage concepts in designing outdoor places and spaces is very essential for professionals and environmental experts. Transdisciplinary approach to research and design has been proposed in recent years. Beyond issues, replacing the logical structure of subject forms the recent cases in which the branch is located. Today, a variety of professionals in environmental design have been created. In the design schools, students are faced with different professional roles. Landscape architecture, urban design and environmental review processes and natural spaces and environments that are pristine and outer city. City planners design and organize the urban areas, mainly in the tissues and structures. Having its traditional role as architects design buildings is to design spaces, construction of buildings, public and private, and some of their urban spaces. Urban planners in conjunction with other land use planning and urban planners to determine the density and per capita levels are involved. But as deduced from the nature and function of these disciplines, all of which are favorable environmental design and planning. Today, more than 15 universities across the country implement the environmental design disciplines. Some of these universities are adjacent to existing environmental design disciplines and interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary looks almost there. As a study of a small number of publications, including articles and theses of the university professors and students, we can follow the development of transdisciplinary approaches to a range of urban issues. Informal settlements, planning, landscape, location, economic values, health, Iranian-Islamic culture, heritage, environment and other issues, have been among the concerns of these publications. Focusing on publications in the areas of environmental design issues, we will find that this holistic perspective is directly related to the topic of this article which is not observed, yet. This paper with the aim of emphasizing on trans-disciplinary approach to the environmental design knowledge and paradigms explains professor’s comments and attitudes to very most important themes and subjects in Iran. The research method is survey study on environmental design professors in Iran. The primary method of data collection for this study was using archives and libraries, through questionnaire survey: in-depth and structured. In this way, the questionnaire was answered by twenty professors of urban design, architecture and landscape architecture at the University of Tehran, ShahidBeheshti University, Iran University of Science and Technology in July to September 2013. To analyze the research data Constant comparative analysis method was used. The collectionand analysis of data can be done simultaneously. Data on capital account and open a twostage selection is done. For this purpose, data is read line by line and opening arguments, the same words are direct, without interpretation, participants were extracted. Open ID identifier concept, involving a company in the words of common understanding, comparison, and identifiers that are conceptually similar to each other, they were one. Categories were compared and, if need be merged. The final issues of the comparative method and understand the content, analyzed and finally selected categories appear. The findings of this paper show that Environmental issues, health, Iranian model, globalization, cultural background, social cohesion, Iranian tradition, participation, management, education, ecology and energy among the most common and also cover the fields of environmental design are covered. In the view of the importance of environmental and cultural approaches in national and international documents and declarations, most experts believe that the trans-disciplinary themes and topics related to cultural, environmental, social and environmental design requirements. Thus, for guidance and clarification on these issues, and interactions with other specialized fields such as medicine, ecology, sociology, theology, economics and energy professionals in the fields of urban design, architecture, landscape architecture, urban planning is necessary. The role of inter-disciplinary thinking in this article is meant to take advantage of multiple approaches. Emphasis on Iranian identity issues, ecology, environment, globalization and education in science and transdisciplinary academic and professional knowledge and advance the frontiers of knowledge, it can track the production of designed environment to pave the coming years.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Trans-Disciplinary
  • environmental design
  • Boundary Concepts
  • interdisciplinary
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