مقدمه ای بر برخی عوامل تأثیرگذار بر معماری معاصر ایران در فاصله ی سال های 1320 تا 1357 ه.ش.

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار معماری، دانشکده هنر، دانشگاه ارومیه، ارومیه، ایران .

چکیده

معماری سرزمین پهناور ایران در دوره های گذشته همواره از یک روند مشخص و مستمر پیروی نموده است، که با زمان پیش و پس از خود رابطه ای منطقی برقرار میکرده، اما این روند در دوره معاصر تداوم نیافته است. این مقاله سعی دارد با رویکرد تحلیلی به برخی از عوامل موثر بر آثار معماری دوره ی معاصر بپردازد و نتایج آن را در سیمای آثار و گرایش کلی زمینه های معماری معاصر ایران بررسی نماید . سؤالات تحقیق عبارتند از:  1- معماری معاصر ایران در چه شرایطی تغییر پیدا کرد؟ 2-- چه عواملی بر معماری سال های 1357 - 1320 ه ..ش. ایران تأثیر گذاشت؟ (این عوامل وزن های مختلفی دارند و هدف این تحقیق وز نکشی این عوامل نیست).  ماهیت این پژوهش مفهومی و کیفی است، زیرا از یک سو به بررسی پدیده هایی در گذشته مربوط میشود و از سوی دیگر این پدیده ها جنبه ای کیفی دارند و نمی توان به صورت عددی، آماری و کمی آن ها را مورد ارزیابی قرار داد. به سبب آن که نوع پژوهش مورد استفاده جنبه کیفی دارد محقق بر آن است که طی بررسی هایی توصیفی و با توجه به مؤلفه موضوع های فوق، عوامل را که در تأثیر اندیشه و فلسفه اندیشمندان معاصر در مفاهیم و پدیده های معماری مدرن ایرانی که هدف این پژوهش می باشد، شناسایی و بررسی نماید. در مسیر تحقیق، از کتاب های تخصصی، مقالات بهره گرفته شده، صاحب نظران متعددی مورد مشورت قرار گرفتند اما باید سهم عمده و مهم را به آثار معماری نسبت داد که شرایط و عوامل بر آن ها تأثیر گذاشته است. بررسی شرایط سیاسی، اقتصادی و فرهنگی این سال ها در ایران و عوامل تأثیرگذار از لحاظ اهمیت و دیدگاه نویسنده تنظیم و تحلیل شده که در پایان گرایش کلی زمینه های معماری معاصر ایران را با توجه به تأثیرگذاری این عوامل معرفی نماید. لازم به ذکر است که انطباق دوره معماری با دوره سیاسی صرفاً یک تفکیک اعتباری است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation of Effective Factors of Iranian Contemporary Architecture (1961-1978)

نویسنده [English]

  • Naser Sabatsani
1. Assistant Professor of Architecture, Faculty of Art, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Architecture in the vast territories of Iran has always followed a continuous particular process in the past, along with the logical relations to its previous and next times. But this trend does not exist in the present period anymore. Considering the fact that many changes began due to highly industrialized world and the inevitable development of modernism, we come to the conclusion that Iranian architecture at different periods has encountered with many changes and developments, especially appropriate interaction with elements of modern architecture to gain optimum conditions. For example, wide changes exist in modern architecture with gradual growth. The roots of these changes back to the ends of Qajar period. Constitutional revolution in Iran caused enormous changes in Iranian life styles. The formation seen in Qajar period is emerging western forms along with the Iranian forms which most of the contemporary intellectuals call it “hybridity”. Changes in relations and spatial structures of new buildings such as: plan, combining elements of European architecture with native architecture, and using building materials with newly emerged western technology were the main features of Iranian architecture during 1961- 1978. Construction of new public buildings in capital city of Iran, considered as the main requirement of that period, has transformed Iranian architecture. Factors affecting the architecture in this period made an innovation in Iran, and by the help of governments officials, were spread widely.  Now the question is what kinds of factors had impact on contemporary Iranian architecture and how these effects could change Iranian architecture during 1961-1978.Although this paper is unable to study all the affecting factors, but it has tried to survey the impacts of these factors. The overlap of architectural and political periods is an inevitable compliance. So the aim of this study is to identify factors influencing architectural ideas and the intellectual formats of the architects which have changed the architecture during the second Pahlavi period. So influencing factors that will be studied in this paper are as follows: 1- political social, economic and cultural activities in the years of 1961-1978. 2- Foreign architects who worked in Iran such as Andre Godard, Maxime Siroux and Roland Marcel Dubrulle on these yeras. 3- Schools of architecture in Iran - Tehran during these years, such as University of Tehran, Bahshty (Mail) University. 4- Iranian architects who graduated from western schools of architecture during this period such as Vartan Hvansyan, Taherzadeh Behzad, Ali Ghelich Baghlyan, Markar Galstyan, Mohsen Foroughi. 5- The impact of new technologies and materials in Architecture in these years. 6- International congresses of Architecture during this period. 7- Accessibility to Iranian and international journal of Architecture like: Architectural Review, Japanese Architecture and L’Architecture D’Aujourd’hul. Architecture of this period, not only can be distinguished through official and residential buildings, but also through the cumulative effects of cinema buildings like City Theatre of Tehran. They all made Tehran experience the transition to modern world. The point is that in most western and Iranian high-circulation magazines dealt with Architecture can be a model for change in the platform of architecture in this period. Methodology and the nature of this paper are qualitative and conceptual. This kind of surveys aims to examine the phenomena in the past time while they are qualitative and they cannot be evaluated with statistical or quantitative equipment. Therefore final target of this paper is to introduce contemporary scientists’ thoughts in architecture by special books, articles, papers and interviewing with architects who have worked in 1961-1978. This paper hopefully tries to indicate real alignment between architecture and economical and political periods.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Qualitative and Quantitative Methodology
  • Influential factors
  • Characteristics of the Influences
  • Contemporary Architecture in Iran during 1961-1978
-- Abrahamian, E. (1998). Iran between Two Revolutions. (K. Firuzmand, H. Shams-Avari, M. Modirshanehchi,

Trans.). Tehran: Nashr-e Markaz.

-- Al-e-Ahmad, J. (1978). Serving and Treacherous Intellectual. Vol. 2. Tehran: Khwarizmi.

-- Ayatollahi, H. (October/17/2005). Interview. Http://www.hamshahrionline.ir/hamnews.

-- Azqandi, A. (2003-2004). History of Social and Political Development in Iran (1941-1979). Tehran: Samt.

-- Banimasoud, A. (2009). Iranian Contemporary Architecture, (1st ed). Tehran: Nashr-e Honar-e Memari.

-- Baski, S. (2000). Interview with Kamran Diba, Architect Magazine, 10.

-- Darvish, M. (2004). Architecture and CultureMagazine, 18, 19.

-- Etessam, I. (1995). Congress Proceeding Historic Architecture and Urbanism, Vol.3. Tehran: Cultural Heritage

and Tourism.

-- Etessam, I. (2009). Iranian Contemporary Architecture: 75 Years of Experience in Public Buildings.

-- Jamalzadeh Esfahani, M. A. (1983). The Worthy Treasure: Iran’s Economic Situation at the Beginning of the 20th

Century, Tehran.

-- Kiani, M. (2007). The First Period of Pahlavi’s Architecture. Tehran: Institute for Iranian Contemporary Historical

studies, (IICHS).

-- Lang, J. (1978). Creating Architectural Theory: The Role of the Behavioral Science in Enviromental Design. (A.

Einifar, Trans.). Tehran: University of Tehran.

-- Marefat, M. (1996). Leaders Who Have Formed Modern Tehran, in Tehran, the Capital of 200 Years. Tehran:

Tehran Municipality, the Office of Technical and Civic Advisor.

-- Ministry of Development and Housing. (1970). The Deliberation of Making Connection Possibility between Traditional

Architecture and Modern’s one. 1st International Architecture Congress, Esfahan.

-- Mohammadi Parsa, R. (2004). Interview with Seyhoun, Hooshang. Architecture and Culture Magazine, 18, 19.

-- Mokhtari Taleghani, E. (2011). The Heritage of Modern Architectural in Iran. Tehran: Office of Cultural Research.

-- Pakbaz, R. (2001). Iranian Painting: Long ago Until Today, (2nd ed). Tehran: Zarrin-o Simin.