عنوان مقاله [English]
Architecture in the vast territories of Iran has always followed a continuous particular process in the past, along with the logical relations to its previous and next times. But this trend does not exist in the present period anymore. Considering the fact that many changes began due to highly industrialized world and the inevitable development of modernism, we come to the conclusion that Iranian architecture at different periods has encountered with many changes and developments, especially appropriate interaction with elements of modern architecture to gain optimum conditions. For example, wide changes exist in modern architecture with gradual growth. The roots of these changes back to the ends of Qajar period. Constitutional revolution in Iran caused enormous changes in Iranian life styles. The formation seen in Qajar period is emerging western forms along with the Iranian forms which most of the contemporary intellectuals call it “hybridity”. Changes in relations and spatial structures of new buildings such as: plan, combining elements of European architecture with native architecture, and using building materials with newly emerged western technology were the main features of Iranian architecture during 1961- 1978. Construction of new public buildings in capital city of Iran, considered as the main requirement of that period, has transformed Iranian architecture. Factors affecting the architecture in this period made an innovation in Iran, and by the help of governments officials, were spread widely. Now the question is what kinds of factors had impact on contemporary Iranian architecture and how these effects could change Iranian architecture during 1961-1978.Although this paper is unable to study all the affecting factors, but it has tried to survey the impacts of these factors. The overlap of architectural and political periods is an inevitable compliance. So the aim of this study is to identify factors influencing architectural ideas and the intellectual formats of the architects which have changed the architecture during the second Pahlavi period. So influencing factors that will be studied in this paper are as follows: 1- political social, economic and cultural activities in the years of 1961-1978. 2- Foreign architects who worked in Iran such as Andre Godard, Maxime Siroux and Roland Marcel Dubrulle on these yeras. 3- Schools of architecture in Iran - Tehran during these years, such as University of Tehran, Bahshty (Mail) University. 4- Iranian architects who graduated from western schools of architecture during this period such as Vartan Hvansyan, Taherzadeh Behzad, Ali Ghelich Baghlyan, Markar Galstyan, Mohsen Foroughi. 5- The impact of new technologies and materials in Architecture in these years. 6- International congresses of Architecture during this period. 7- Accessibility to Iranian and international journal of Architecture like: Architectural Review, Japanese Architecture and L’Architecture D’Aujourd’hul. Architecture of this period, not only can be distinguished through official and residential buildings, but also through the cumulative effects of cinema buildings like City Theatre of Tehran. They all made Tehran experience the transition to modern world. The point is that in most western and Iranian high-circulation magazines dealt with Architecture can be a model for change in the platform of architecture in this period. Methodology and the nature of this paper are qualitative and conceptual. This kind of surveys aims to examine the phenomena in the past time while they are qualitative and they cannot be evaluated with statistical or quantitative equipment. Therefore final target of this paper is to introduce contemporary scientists’ thoughts in architecture by special books, articles, papers and interviewing with architects who have worked in 1961-1978. This paper hopefully tries to indicate real alignment between architecture and economical and political periods.