بررسی تعامل اصول معماری ایرانی و انرژی خورشیدی از منظر فرم، تقارن و جهت گیری، نمونه موردی: خانه ی عباسیان کاشان

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی معماری، دانشکده فنی و مهندسی، دانشگاه قم، قم، ایران.

2 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد معماری، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد تهران مرکز، تهران، ایران.

3 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه علم و صنعت ایران، تهران، ایران.

4 استادیار معماری، دانشکده معماری و هنر، دانشگاه کاشان، کاشان، ایران.

5 استاد مرمت، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه علم و صنعت، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

در این نوشتار سعی بر آن است تا ورای آنچه که به عنوان اصول پایداری در معماری سنتی ایران مطرح می شو د، نظام قانونمند مسلط بر معماری ایرانی که نمودی فاخر از توجه به انطباق با مسائل اقلیمی و استفاده ی بهینه از انرژی خورشیدی است را با بهره گیری از نرم افزار های شبیه ساز انرژی نظیر اکوتکت 1، سولار تولز 1 و وِدِر تولز 3 تحلیل کرده و به بیان نتایج به زبان گرافیک بپردازد. در پژوهش حاضر بر اساس داده های اقلیمی تهیه شده به روش ساندیا، ابتدا میزان دریافت انرژی خورشیدی عناصر مختلف خانه ی عباسیان کاشان مورد تحلیل واقع شده و سپس عملکرد معماری ایرانی در نحوه ی ایجاد برهمکنش میان جهت گیری، فرم و تقارن با خورشید بررسی گردیده است. ابزارهای اصلی تحلیل در این پژوهش شامل نر م فزارهایی نظیر اِکوتِکت آنالیز 4، رِویت 5 و اِسکِتچ آپ 6 می باشند. به گونه ای که عملیات تعیین زون های حرارتی نمونه در نرم افزار رِویت و مدل سازی در نرم افزار اِسکِتچ آپ انجام می گیرد.  محاسبات تابش خورشیدی در انواع مستقیم و پراکنده نیز در اِکوتِکت انجام گرفته است. همچنین، مطالعات خورشیدی با استفاده از ریزنرم افزارهای هماهنگ با اِکوتِکت، نظیر سولار تولز و وِدِر تولز صورت گرفته است. نتایج این تحقیق، نشان خواهد داد که عناصر خانه ی ایرانی، متناسب با زندگی انسان در طول سال، میزان دریافت حرارت را بر مبنای عملکرد فضا ها در شمال و جنوب، شرق و غرب، به صورتی متعادل توزیع کرده و خانه ی ایرانی را به عنوان سامانه ای هماهنگ با حرکت خورشید، معرفی می نماید. بنابراین، می توان این گونه نتیجه گرفت که سامانه ی حرارتی خانه ی ایرانی برگرفته از اصولی است که نه تنها موجب ایجاد نظامی هماهنگ در ساختار معماری سنتی ایران شده است، بلکه تعریف کننده ی مسیری است که بنای ایرانی هماهنگی خود را با محیط (در جهت آسایش انسانی)  اثبات می نماید.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Examine the Interaction of Traditional Iranian Architecture Principles in Terms of Form, Orientation and Symmetry to the Solar Energy, Case study: Abbasiyan house in Kashan

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mahdi Soheili Fard 1
  • Hamid Akhtarkavan 2
  • Salva Falahi 3
  • Mahdi AkhtarKavan 4
  • Asghar Mohammad Moradi 5
1 B.A. Student of Architecture, Architecture College, University of Qom. Qom, Iran.
2 M.A. Student of Architecture, Architecture College, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
3 3. M.A. Student of Architecture, School of Architecture and Environmental Design, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran.
4 Assistant Professor of Architecture, Architecture and Art College, University of Kashan, Kashan, Iran.
5 Professor of Architecture, School of Architecture and Environmental Design, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Since human life has commenced, sun has proved his role in human life and comfort. Presence of the major source of energy has been proposed as an endless grace in human settlements and clearly the effect of sun could be seen in architecture of buildings in different styles. So, there are many principles underlie an environment in interaction with Sun. Human as a natural heir, has continued this interaction to provide the conditions that guarantee his comfort. Civilizations have tried to gain maximum use of this radiation to provide comfort living condition. Studying climate behavior of buildings requires a holistic point of view of different elements and observation of the ability to impress. Each other. Iranian house should be considered as a functional system and complete collection of related elements, because all of the existing details in various parts such as courtyard, belvedere, walls, portico, and openings have effective roles in behavioral  ordering to the climate and energy. This essay attempts to find principles of sustainability in traditional Iranian architecture and dominant legal system over Iranian house. The fine manifestation of attention to climate issues and optimal uses of solar energy is going to be simulated by building energy simulation software; and the results are going to be expressed in graphic language. Analysis includes three different parts from interactions between form, symmetry and orientation. Iranian house, first emphasizes on geometric capabilities by using erected form on rectangular. On this basis, the house spaces can be divided into two parts of summery space (southern) and a winter space (northern) by semi-open filter introduced as courtyard. Symmerty as a second principle is driven from emphasis on unity and centrality like constellation which is bright in its centrality and also it has a balance. The last part of analysis is about orientation. As different seasons distinguish from each other because of changing of the earth axis toward the sun, building orientation is affected by amount of radiated solar energy to its walls in different hours.  In this research, the process baded on weather data files is produced by using Sandia method, held by Dr. Abdolsalam Ebrahimpour. Amount of solar intake of different but elements is analyzed and then, performance at traditional Iranian architecture has been investigated in order to find out how to create  interaction between form and orientation and symmetry with the sun. The connection procedure between what is propound as amodel and the tools which are selected in accordance which significant output, requires  comprehensive study around existing tools, because the harmony between model and significant kind of analysis has a direct relationship which reliable and validity of study. The process in this research is based upon software tools such as Ecotect, Weather tools and solar tools. In order of this, thermal zoning is in Revit and the base modeling is done in Sketchup. The sun radiation calculation is also done in Ecotect. The results show that elements of Iranian house perform proportionally with human lifestyle over the whole year. Based on the performance of spaces displacement in North and South, East and West, they receive a balance amount of distributed heat. Therefore the Iranian house can be introduced as a coordinated system with the sun path. Tangible thermal comfort in Iranian house is because of special elegances of design with climate, form and orientation which are the instruments for human domination to control this vast energy resource. This process exists in all of elements of house as formation of a whole which include portico, belvedere, courtyard and other Iranian architecture details in a systematically part as a house to form appropriate feedback. Therefore it seems that thermal system of Iranian house is defined from such principles which actually not only set an integrated harmony  in traditional architecture, but also have the order and harmony based on human comfort. Interactions of Iranian architecture principles with energy have an efficient manner for house. In conclusion, energy efficient  system of Iranian house driven from principles not  only caves in creating harmonious system in Iranian traditional architecture structure,but also defines the way that Iranian building proves its harmonious with environment in   order to human comfort.  

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Iranian Architecture Principles
  • Abbasiayn House of Kashan
  • Energy Simulation
  • Thermal Distribution
  • Solar energy
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