همگونی کالبدی زیستگاهها فارغ از ارتباطات قومی (بررسی تطبیقی کالبدی روستای میمند کرمان و مساوردی کلرادو)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 پژوهشگر دکتری معماری، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد تهران مرکزی، تهران، ایران.

2 کارشناس ارشد معماری، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه علم و صنعت ایران، تهران، ایران.

3 دکترای معماری و استادیار گروه شهرسازی، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه علم و صنعت ایران، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

انگیزه این مقاله، برگرفته از ضرورت تغییر نگرش در معماری در ارزش نهادن به راهکارهای اقلیمی و همساز با طبیعت است. پژوهش حاضر در پی پاسخ به سؤالاتی اینچنین می باشد که اولاً آیا در محیط های اقلیمی با شرایط همسان، الگوهای کالبدی یکسانی فارغ از تمایزات فرهنگی می تواند یافت شود؟ دوم اینکه چه ویژگی های اقلیمی تأثیر بیشتری بر همگونی الگوهای کالبدی در مناطق مشابه اقلیمی دارند؟ فرضیه این پژوهش این است که تأثیر عوامل محیطی نظیر شکل زمین، ارتفاع از سطح دریا، میزان بارش و مواردی از این دست بر کالبد معماری، نسبت به هر عامل دیگری بیشتر است و نوعی وحدت رویه در معماری اجتماعات انسانی در سراسر جهان یافت می شود که ناشی از زمینه های اقلیمی مشترک و شکل طبیعی مشابه زمین می باشد. این مقاله با روش پژوهش علّی- مقایسه ای کارشده و با برداشت های کالبدی از دو نمونه ویژه پیش برده شده است. این دو به گونه ای انتخاب شده اند که سابقه ارتباط قومی و فرهنگی باهم ندارند. یافته های این پژوهش نشان می دهد که تشابهات ویژه ای میان کالبد دو زیستگاه نمونه یافت می شود و عوامل اقلیمی، تأثیرگذار بر مکان یابی بافت روستا، و معماری آن فارغ از شرایط فرهنگی بوده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Following of Human Residences Positioning and Form from Ecological and Climatic Concepts Despite of Cultural Connections (Comparative examination of Meymand Village of Kerman and Mesa Verde Village of Colorado)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammadreza Ataei Hamedani 1
  • Amir Niknafs 2
  • Seyyed Majid Mofidi Shemirani 3
1 PhD Student in Architecture, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
2 M.A. in Architecture, School of Architecture and Environmental Design, Iran University of Science & Technology, Tehran, Iran.
3 Assistant Professor of Architecture, School of Architecture and Environmental Design, Iran University of Science & Technology, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

By compatibility with different environmental factors, architecture and urbanization meet human’s needs and ease hard conditions through making human-made factors. Because human being is a social creature, he satisfies part of his needs through relation with fellowmen and other communities. Naturally, this relation results in similarities of architectural and artistic key forms and elements. This research attempts to study the amount of climate factors’ effects on similarity of architectural shapes and characteristics of regions which are the same in terms of climate and endemic factors but lack any cultural relations. For this purpose, Meymad village in Kerman-Iran and Mesa Verde Village in Colorado-USA have been selected as samples. These two regions are the same in terms of climate and local factors, while they have no cultural relationships. The hypothesis of this research is studying the direct effects of environmental factors such as earth’s shape, altitude, precipitation, and etc. on architectural forms. Methodology of the present research is a case study in which the positioning and architecture of Meymand and Mesa Verde villages have been compared. The other methodology is correlation in which the independent variables are climate and local factors such as earth’s shape, precipitation, altitude, average of annual maximum and minimum temperatures and Coupon climate zoning. Dependent variables are positioning of village contexture, type of materials, external for of building and nature of internal applications positioning. Solutions were applied to gather these information include literature review and documentary studies in both regions, climate calculation of 10-year weather factors and drawing related diagrams, analyzing the content of diagrams, closing data to architectural basics and finally, comparative studies of both regions” architecture and examining their similarities and differences in a reflective analysis. Meymad’s latitude is 30° 15” and its longitude is 55° 25”, also its altitude is 2240m. What made forming a hole in the mount with no landslide and collapse possible in Meymand Village was a cooled resistant layer of volcanic lavas of “Mazadoun” mount. It makes possible to drill the lower layers of the mount with no danger. This thick layer is generally used in upper parts of buildings and roof of upstairs. Another type of residence is seen in  pastures and farms which covers temporary and seasonal needs of Meymand’s locals. Of these kinds of houses, we can imply to sheds, hedge and Kombeh which are constructed with light and available materials such as trees’ branches and leaves. The boughs are used in shed and Kombeh as main material and conveyor, whereas hedge is a shelter which is constructed by drilling a hole and wooden cover. Many Pueblo people or Indians of southwestern America, made houses in the wide openings of caves; the most splendid is Mesa Verde Rock Castle Complex in Colorado-USA. In this region, architecture is a response to natural views and function of existing geographic order. Architecture of this region is consisted from a united collection of small and pierced residential fundamental units fenced with wall. Mesa Verdi residential complex has been retreated from natural gutta line of upper rock and thus all houses are located under southern horizontal sunshade and the interior air has been adjusted by controlling radiation attraction. Stone materials used in southern walls have 1 to 1.5 meters width and like northern natural wall, the complex benefits from high temperature mass. In Mesa Verde, living is based on agriculture and poultry (Charls F, 1996:110). Most of agriculture in Mesa Verde region has been done through dry farming method. Another type of temporary residences built by light materials is used in farms which are constructed from boughs and covered by leaves of trees; such as Choctaw, Sweet Lodge and Hogan. Sweet lodge is a kind of temporary residence which is constructed by drilling a rounded hole in the earth and covered by leaves and uses earth temperature balance (Floyd, 1999:110). According to an especial division, we can divide human residences into fertile and barren regions climates. A barren climate is caused by industrial activities in human’s territory. In architecture climate, human-made spaces are constructed in barren climate and what are seen in fertile climate are pristine nature, agricultural territory and poultry pastures. Human-made spaces in fertile climates are constructed for preserving nature’s territory and local architecture makes least interfere in this territory. Architectural solutions used in one region are different from that of another. Even in most similar sites, we can’t see same architectural approaches, because other factors of climate and earth’s shape are effective in architecture of a region. Although, considering the similarity of natural environment wich has climatic, position and ecological factors in cases under study, we should be more accurate about human-made spaces therein. Generally, we can consider the following cases as most important characteristics of Meymand and Mesa Verde Villages: • incorporating human-made and natural sites, • using light materials with least needed processes, • utilizing heavy materials for construction of building in human eco and establishing permanent residences, • And, using light materials for construction of shelter in agricultural eco and establishing temporary residences.  

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Ethnic Architecture
  • Climate
  • Fundamental Models
  • Mesa Verde
  • Meymand
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