بررسی معیارهای طراحی مطلوب فضای شهری برای کودکان، نمونه موردی: محله نظامیه تهران

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه معماری و شهرسازی، دانشکده فنی و مهندسی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد شهر قدس، تهران، ایران.

2 کارشناسی ارشد طراحی شهری، دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد علوم و تحقیقات، تهران، ایران.

3 کارشناسی ارشد معماری، دانشکده عمران و معماری، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد قزوین، قزوین، ایران.

چکیده

امروزه، کمیت و کیفیت فضاهای شهری به یکی از مهم ترین سنجه های توسعه یافتگی و قابلیت زندگی در شهرها بدل شده است. فضاهای شهری یا عرصه های عمومی نمایانگر پویایی زندگی شهری و اساس و بنیان دانش- حرفه طراحی شهری هستند. فضاهای عمومی شهری بیشتر از آنکه دارای نقشی کالبدی باشند به دلیل ایجاد تعاملات اجتماعی میان شهروندان واجد اهمیت هستند و باید بتوانند زمینه حضور تمامی افراد جامعه به ویژه گروه های آسیب پذیرتر همچون کودکان را فراهم نمایند. از سویی دیگر، توجه به خواسته ها و نیازهای کودکان در طراحی قلمروهای عمومی از آن رو که این گروه سنی دارای بیشترین تأثیرپذیری و بالاترین میزان استفاده از فضاهای شهری می باشند، از ضرورتی دوچندان برخوردار است. تحقیق حاضر به منظور ارزیابی معیارهای مطلوبیت فضاهای عمومی شهری در نزد کودکان 11-7 ساله به روش مطالعه اسنادی با استفاده از مهم ترین منابع و مطالعه میدانی با راهکاری ترکیبی؛ ثبت نقاشی های کودکان، مصاحبه و مشاهده غیررسمی در محله نظامیه تهران انجام گرفته است. بدین منظور پس از تبیین مفهوم و عوامل مطلوبیت فضای شهری و ویژگی ها و توانایی های کودکان در سنین مختلف، اهمیت و روش های مشارکت کودکان در طراحی فضاهای شهری بر اساس آرای صاحب نظران گوناگون تدوین و جمع بندی گردیده و سپس با استفاده از روش بداهه سازی، دیدگاه های مختلف ابرازشده توسط کودکان در نمونه مطالعاتی مورد تحلیل و ارزیابی قرار گرفته است. نتایج حاصل از این پژوهش نشان می دهند که عوامل مطلوبیت فضا ارائه شده توسط صاحب نظران با فراوانی تقریباً مشابهی از سوی کودکان نیز تأییدشده و مواردی چون امنیت، فضای سبز، هوای پاک و سرزندگی، مهم ترین معیارهای فضاهای شهری باکیفیت را از نظر کودکان شکل می دهند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluating Criteria of Desirable Design of Urban Spaces for Children, Case Study: Nezamieh Neighborhood of Tehran

نویسندگان [English]

  • Khashayar Kashani Jou 1
  • Sara Harzandi 2
  • Ilnaz Fathololoomi 3
1 Assistant Professor of Urbanism, Department of Architecture and Urban Studies, Shahr-e-Qods Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
2 M.A. in Urban Design, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
3 M.A. in Architecture, Qazvin Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qazvin, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Urban spaces or public areas are the main place of citizens’ social life. In urban public areas, the most contacts, relations, and interactions happen among people. These spaces include the whole parts of urban area that people have physical or visual access to them. Therefore, these places include streets, parks, junctions, and surrounding buildings. Moreover, the public sense of space, public openness, and performance of social interactions are three main indicators of urban spaces.These spaces find their meaning through presence of human activities. Nowadays, the quality and quantity of urban spaces are considered as the most important indicators of development and livability in cities. Urban spaces indicate life dynamism in cities and they are base of urban design. Urban public spaces are more important because of their role in creating social interactions among the citizens rather than their physical role. Therefore they have to provide context for participation of all society members, especially weaker groups like children. As many children of the world live in urban areas, they should be able to declare their viewpoints in related issues. They should be able to nurture their potentials by participation in creating social life. Meanwhile, there are few researches related to the investigation of children’s viewpoints about designing urban spaces. Furthermore, considering the needs of children in designing public areas is significant because their ages put them in the most impressionable groups of the society. Evaluating desirability criteria of urban public spaces from viewpoints of children and also investigating the importance and the methods of participating children in the process of designing urban spaces are the purpose of this research. 7-11 year- old- Children have been considered as the target group Because children in these ages, according to their physical and mental abilities, have the capacity of learning citizen’s rights and life skills regarding to the social and cultural issues. Nezamieh neighborhood which is in district no. 6 of region no. 12 in Tehran was considered as the case study and 50 children including 25 boys and 25 girls has been selected as the sample case by accidental categorized method. Then, it was requested from this sample group to declare desirable factors in urban spaces of their living areas by painting. The method is documentary through the most valid resources and local investigation by a compound approach. Then several paintings have been registered and some unofficial interviews and observations have been done. For this purpose, after explaining the concept, indicators of urban spaces, characteristics and children capabilities in different ages, the importance manners of children participation in designing urban spaces have been summarized based on different theorists’ viewpoints. Then by using improvisation method, different childrens opinions in unofficial interview and also their paintings have been analyzed. The main reason of using improvisation method is completely free explanation of internal sense by children because if the child knows the opinions of the tester, he will hide his ideas. These data have been evaluated by an experienced expert of learning psychology from two aspects; framework including lines, space, color which are indicators of general personality of the child and context including declaration of the child’s viewpoint by adjusting the distance of elements (house, tree, alley, sky, ground, car,…), the position and size of the subject in the paper. Findings show that providing children’s favorites in designing, changing planning focus and participating of children in their related issues are some of the most important reasons for engaging children in planning process. Also, creating social infrastructures, participatory design projects, painting and preparing map, interview and observation are the most important methods of this participation. Moreover, the results indicate that desirability factors of urban public spaces that professionals have presented are confirmed for children. In the other words, children have pointed to factors such as security, green spaces, clean air and livability as the most important criteria of desirable urban spaces. This means that children have emphasized on connection between nature and human-orientation in urban spaces. 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • urban public space
  • Children Participation
  • Desirable Place
  • Improvisation
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