ارزیابی نقش منظر فضاهای جمعی در کیفیت شهری، نمونه موردی: منطقه یک تهران

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 عضو هیأت علمی گروه فنی، دانشکده مهندسی، دانشگاه یاسوج، یاسوج، ایران.

2 دانشجوی دکترای برنامه ریزی شهری، دانشکده علوم جغرافیایی، دانشگاه خوارزمی،تهران، ایران.

3 کارشناسی ارشد علوم ارتباطات، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد تهران مرکز، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

امروزه، فضاهای عمومی شاخص، در غیاب سیاست ها و مدیریت های جامعه در جایگاه والای خود مورد توجه کافی قرار نگرفته و پاسخ گویی به نیازهای متنوع انسان امروز و تأمین آسایش در سایه ی انعطاف پذیری عملکردی آن نادیده گرفته شده است. در سال های اخیر، کیفیت فضای جمعی روندی رو به رشد را طی نکرده، حال آن که انسانها در سراسیمگی شهرهای امروز، تنها به دنبال عرصه هایی با هویت های ویژه هستند تا علاوه بر تأمین آسایش و تعامل باهم نوعان، در بستر پویایی اجتماعی به کمال متعالی خود نائل شوند. در این نوشتار به منظور نیل به هدف اصلی مقاله که ارزیابی نقش منظر فضاهای جمعی در ارتقاء کیفیت و هویت شهری است به بررسی ویژگی های فضای جمعی منطقه و عوامل مؤثر در کیفیت آن می پردازیم. در ادامه سعی بر آن است تا پس از معرفی فضاهای عمومی شاخص در منطقه یک تهران و ویژگی های آن، به بررسی کیفیت فضای عمومی در محله با استفاده از تحلیل SOWT پرداخته شود. نتایج نشان می دهد که فضاهای جمعی موجود در منطقه اغلب دارای تمامی خصوصیات یک فضای جمعی مناسب نبوده و با آشفتگی و اغتشاش روبه رو می باشد. همچنین نیاز به ایجاد فضای جمعی در سطح منطقه و محلات با توجه به افزایش جمعیت و مهاجرپذیری منطقه به عنوان عنصر لازم در مقیاس شهری ضروری می باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Quality Assessment of Public Spaces in the Urban Landscape

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ali Akbar Heidari 1
  • Elham Amirhajlou 2
  • Masome Karkhaneh 3
  • Narges Ahmadifard 2
1 Faculty Membership of Engineering of Department, Faculty of Engineering, Yasuj University, Yasuj, Iran.
2 2. PhD Student Geography and Urban Planning, Faculty of Geography, Kharazmi University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
3 M.A. Student in Communication Sciences, Central Tehran branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Public spaces are one of the major spaces in metropolitan areas which civic life flows in. Also super aspect of public relations is reflected in public spaces. There was social correlations sites and spaces with different scales in traditional era of Iranian cities, but because of the transformation of urban spatial in the modern period these spaces were stripped of their social burden. In hence, regardless of the role they can play, structure of the city with these spaces led to illegible and non-recognizable context of the city. “Urban Public Spaces” should be a place for “social interaction” and “social life”. Public spaces have a mission to increase “social capital” in communities, in the context of social interactions and connections which can be admitted for the development and formation of “individuality” and “social’ identity. The urban landscape can be examined with the aspects of functional, identical and aesthetic. Urban landscape with the three dimensions of emotional, cultural and ecological identity is a new type of fluid identity that directly relates to the perception of citizens. Attention to the landscape as a basic and necessary ( but not sufficient) factor for the qualification of urban spaces has a special significance. Quality of urban space as a product of the interaction between human, activity and physic of the city is dependent on the quality of its visual components. Visual components of urban space due to the nature of concrete are human perceived senses; providing background of perception, cognition and environmental assessment of citizens. The role of public spaces in the urban landscape is summarized in three major components: functional role of environment, the aesthetic (visual) role and identity role. Paying attention to the roles and improving the situation of urban public spaces, this paper attempted to assess the effectiveness, the role of public spaces in urban identity and quality of region no.1 of Tehran. The statistic population of this study is the inhabitants of Shemiranat (Tajrish) city center which is located in region no.1 of municipality of Tehran and according to the population census of 1385; there were 7,840 persons and 2863 households. Sample population were selected by those who had answered the questionnaires, Finally, the extracted information from the questionnaires were examined by some methods of analysis and using SPSS statistical software. In order to analyze public spaces as well as the quality and identity, SWOT analysis matrix was used. Categories of subjective and objective factors such as perception, reading, visual aspects and functional capabilities of public spaces for region no.1 as well as effective factors in role-creating, persistence in addressed mind, create and reinforce memories and perspectives play role in qualification of urban spaces. Public spaces of the urban landscape due to favorable factors have played a significant role in the life and vitality of urban space. Existences of the natural environment in conceptual and historical aspects, and recreation of natural and cultural perspective are effective factors to promote a sense of community and place. On the other hand, often the existing public spaces have such characteristics that are not suitable for a public space. Thus, there are obstacles in the way of successful function of spaces which can be divided into two main groups: 1) physical problem (in terms of perceived quality), 2) lack of planning and management problems (in terms of intangible quality). Nowadays, with the physical problems that often are important for performance, trade and providing services, these places will become the centers of chaos and confusion due to problems caused by lack of a plan for monitoring and managing these spaces.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • public spaces
  • Urban landscape
  • Urban Quality
  • Region 1 Tehran

 

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