بررسی و آزمون شاخص قابلیت پیاده روی و ارتباط آن با محیط ساخته شده شهر، نمونه موردی: شهر قروه

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار جغرافیا و برنامه ریزی شهری، دانشکده علوم انسانی و اجتماعی، دانشگاه مازندران، بابلسر، ایران .

2 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد جغرافیا و برنامه ریزی شهری، دانشکده علوم انسانی و اجتماعی، دانشگاه مازندران، بابلسر، ایران.

چکیده

به دنبال رشد بیماری های قلبی عروقی و چاقی به ویژه در میان سالخوردگان اهمیت فضای فیزیکی شهرها چند برابر گردید و بنابراین نقش پیاده روی بر روی بهداشت عمومی جامعه شهری مورد توجه قرار گرفت. در دهه گذشته شاهد رشد مطالعات در زمینه بهداشت عمومی، حمل ونقل و برنامه ریزی شهری بوده ایم که اثر محیط ساخته شده بر فعالیت های بدنی و به طور خاص نقش پیاده روی را تحلیل کرده اند. هرچند در کشورهای توسعه یافته توجه قابل ملاحظه ایی بر این مطالعات وجود داشته است، مطالعات کمی در این مورد در کشورهای درحال توسعه مانند ایران وجود دارد. هدف این مقاله تحلیل معیارهای عینی از محیط ساخته شده و ارتباط آن با پیاده روی در سطح محلات شهر قروه است. نتایج به دست آمده از سطح خود-گزارشی پیاده روی توسط افراد هدف )بالای 65 سال( نشان می دهد ساکنان محلاتی که دارای قابلیت پیاده روی بالا هستند بدون در نظر گرفتن سطح کیفیت زندگی آن ها بیشتر از کسانی که در محلات با قابلیت پیاده روی کم زندگی می کنند پیاده روی می کنند. لذا می توان نتیجه گرفت که محیط ساخته شده شهری می تواند فرصت هایی را برای افرادی که مشتاق پیاده روی هستند فراهم آورد و همچنین مسئولیت برنامه ریزان شهری در خلق مکان هایی که دارای قابلیت پیاده روی بیشتری باشند را تأکید می کند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation of a Walk-Ability Index and its Relation with built Environments, Case Study: Qourveh City

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sedigheh Lotfi 1
  • Asqar Shakibaei 2
1 Associate Professor of Geography and Urban Planning, Faculty of Humanity and Social Sciences, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Iran.
2 M.A. Student of Geography and Urban Planning, Faculty of Humanity and Social Sciences, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Iran.
چکیده [English]

There are many studies about the relation between built environments and physical Activities in the field of public health, transportation, and urban planning in the past decade. These researches emphasized on the strong relation between accessibility to parks, recreational and sport services, stores and shopping centers, residential density, and street connections. These studies applied two main approaches: objective and subjective. The literature of physical activities and its relation with the urban structure has attracted wide attention in developed countries and also in some large cities of developing countries. The present study has attempted to examine this issue in a medium sized city, Qourveh, by seeking the following aims: First, investigating the relation between qualities of built environments and walk-ability. Second, comparing the outcomes of built environments to the self-reported information extracted from elderly people of the city. There are different methods for studying built environment and walk-ability. These methods have many common points and each of them has concentrated on particular investigation with its main concern such as purpose of walking, net residential density, land use mix, street connection but there is a lack in main criteria for assessing parking space. In this research the net residential density is the ratio of residential units which are allocated for residential uses. The street intersection density covers the number of intersections in all streets in km2 and finally land use mix is allocated using the following entropy: K is the set of land uses; P is the ratio of land area in statistical blocks which belonged to a specific use. The land uses are divided into five uses of residential commercial, recreational, institutional and others. If the amount of entropy index (between zero and one) tends toward one, it indicates the higher level of mixed land use in statistical block (and vice versa). Then the value of each criterion is normalized using Z-score. This study used four criteria for measuring walk-ability: intersection density of streets, parking spaces in neighborhoods, net residential density and land use mix which were collected and illustrated with the help of GIS. The results show that the neighborhood of 2-2-3 had the highest potential for walking and the neighborhood of 2-1-1 had the lowest walk-ability. The potential of walk-ability are ranked in three categories as low, moderate and high. To analyze the level of sensitivity in each method of classification, the methods of Geometric Interval, Equal interval and Natural breaks were applied separately. The results obtained from all three classifications show that 17 percent of the people live in neighborhoods with low walk-ability. The geometric interval shows that about 57 percent of the people live in neighborhoods which have low quality of life. To make a decision for selecting the neighborhoods for validity, a comparison study between neighborhoods with highest and lowest level of quality of life and walk-ability was done. Then each neighborhood was marked regarding to its quality of life and potential of walk-ability. The classifications of the neighborhoods show that only the neighborhood of 1-4-2 place in HW/HLQ. The neighborhoods of 3-3-3, 2-2-1 and 2-2-2 show the features of HW/ LLQ. Finally none of the areas obtain the quality of (LW/LLQ) and (LW/HLQ). This study followed the researches in the context of public health, transportation and urban planning which aimed to find the impacts of built environments on physical activities by focusing on a medium sized city (Qourveh). This study used Frank and his colleagues’ walk-ability indexes which consider walk-ability apart from the level of life quality (as an indicator of socio-economic status). Also, the elderly people who live in areas with higher potential for walking exercise more by walking regardless of their socio-economic status. The research reveals that using walk-ability indexes is highly depended to information availability and this issue confines different scale of the present study. Obviously a comprehensive information bank of built environment including commercial uses and quality of side-walks can provide better results. This study has some limitations such as lack of proper and valid information regarding to the detail of land uses; different concept of a neighborhood in the mind of residents and administrative definitions; selecting elderly group as the only target group due to time limitation.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Physical space
  • Walkability
  • public health
  • Neighborhood
  • Qourveh

 

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