خوانشی از دگرگونی شهر در عصر اطلاعات و جهانی شدن

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار طراحی شهری، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه علم و صنعت ایران، تهران، ایران.

2 دانشیار طراحی شهری، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی دانشگاه علم و صنعت ایران، تهران، ایران.

3 پژوهشگر دکتری شهرسازی، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه علم و صنعت ایران، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

هدف نوشتار حاضر نیل به تصویری بیش و کم روشن از دگرگونی های شهر در عصر اطلاعات و جهانی شدن است و آنکه این دگرگونی ها که ماحصل آن از دید بسیاری از اندیشمندان، فرآیندهای جهانی شدن و جهانی سازی و فروریختن ساختارهای معمول و باز تعریف آن ها در قالب مفاهیم جهانی است چگونه شکل شهرها را تغییر می دهد. پژوهش در این نوشتار مبتنی بر روش تبیینی – تحلیلی است که با توجه به کیفی بودن مسئله، تحلیل به شیوه تطبیقی انجام شده است. سعی بر آن است با مرور نوشتگان و آرای صاحب نظران، جنبه هایی از این تحولات در رابطه با شهر بررسی شود، مهم ترین ویژگی تبعی آن ها یعنی مقوله شهرهای جهانی مورد مداقه گیرد و دگرگونی های ناشی از آن در ابعاد کالبدی و غیر کالبدی شهر و فضای شهری مورد تحلیل و تطبیق قرار گیرد. حالتی که در آن توسعه شهری به کمک فضاهای سایبری و در همپوشی با واقعیت موجود به عنوان مکمل فضاهای شهری، به صورت هیبریدی و با منطق شبکه ای معنادار می شود. خصوصیت چنین فضایی تسلط بر محدودیت های زمانی و مکانی است که عموماً باعث گردیده مسائل بنیادی زندگی انسان امروزی بردی جهانی پیدا کنند، جامعه جهانی بیش از پیش وابسته شود و بسیاری از فرآیندهای جهانی شدن شکل بگیرند که خود به تبع، شکل گیری مراکزی فرا منطقه ای را در قالب شهرهای جهانی در پی داشته است. نتیجه همه این دگرگونی ها ارائه ی تعریف جدیدی از زمان و جغرافیا به صورت اجتماعات فراملی و چندگانگی فرهنگی است. فضاهای شهری و طراحی آن در این شرایط باز تعریف می شود و قالب های مفهومی، هندسی و شکلی جدیدی در لای هها و مقیاس های مختلف شهر بر پایه سیستم شبکه ای شهرها و مبتنی بر رویه ی طراحی جدید، منتج از شرایط اقتصادی، فرهنگی، سیاسی و فنی- تکنیکی جدید شکل می گیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

A Review of Urban Transformations during Information- Globalization Era

نویسندگان [English]

  • Seyed Abdolhadi Daneshpour 1
  • Mostafa Abbaszadegan 2
  • Hooman Ghahremani 3
1 Assistant Professor of Urbanism, School of Architecture and Environmental Design, Iran University of Science & Technology, Tehran, Iran.
2 Associate Professor of Urbanism, School of Architecture and Environmental Design, Iran University Of Science & Technology, Tehran, Iran.
3 PhD Candidate in Urbanism, School of Architecture and Environmental Design, Iran University of Science & Technology, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

The present article is examining the transformation of cities in information and globalization era. According to the experts, this transformation is as the result of globalization process in which means changing the ordinary structures and redefinition of them in globalized world. Due to the qualitative nature of the subject, an analytic research methodology is adopted using comparative method. The literature regarding to the transformation of globalized cities was reviewed in order to gather data about the characteristics of global cities and their physical and non-physical aspects. This paper considers issues such as privatization and economic transformation, transformation of transportation, immigration and movement. Nowadays, city centers are created regarding to a particular pattern and meaning in virtual social and interactive spatial context. Some cultural values such as identity have also encountered with drastic changes. Alteration in concepts of time and place is the phenomenon which could change the concepts of architecture and create a new definition for form and space. It is obvious that new order shapes our built environment which is different from that of industrial and post industrial cities. As industrialization and mechanical mode of transportation changed, the traditional forms of the cities have been shifted to a new and modern order. It can be assumed that cities in pre-electronic age would transform as a result of cyber era and we should expect to experience new townscape and forms. What happened in 1980s and 1990s was replacing space of places with space of flows that are  new spatial compositions which are totally distinctive from the old ones. Global cities are the result of technological revolution and communication advancement capabilities. Global cities have appeared through international division of labor and the new economic condition as the outcomes of information technology evolution. In thesecircumstances, transferring of capital could happen in seconds and without any risk. Borderless economy is much dependent on various factors such as capital, commodities, raw materials, work forces and tourisms. Government policies are extremely important for privatization and opening local and closed economies, in order to attract multinational corporations and provide facilities for national economical institution to share and become active in global economy. International forces, specially “international urban economy” are the factors that bind future of cities to international networks. In this situation, city development is more related to global than national circumstances. In this situation, cities or city regions are not isolated islands any more, they are part of networks of cities influenced by global networks. Therefore their roles ore assigned by such networks and it is not necessarily reliant on their size. In this situation of transformation, various elements of globalization create unstable circumstances for older hierarchy of cities and then “Deconcentrated Concentration” is possibly observed. In this situation concentration of global activities can be observed in main city of metropolitan region, especially central economical activities and decentralization in this context is transferring part of urban activities to regional nodes and other city centers. Patterns of urban open spaces in global cities are too dependent on privatization and private finance and their priorities which end up in uneven development of many cities centers. This is the type of urban design which, due to the reliance of cities on private sector economy, is un-balance and piecemeal. Cities reliance on private sector economy has resulted in an un-balanced and piecemeal urban development and design. This type of urban design relies too much on markets and is so much concerned about visual aesthetic and neglects the context. International clients with global issues and agenda are one of the main reasons which make the import/export of services in global company design tremendously increased. In the other hands, the urban design tendencies have been affected by teleworking life style and wired residential communities that introduced different forms. These forms are usually mixed uses of residential development that are facilitated with cheap and high speed internet services shaping online communities; virtual cities with online shopping, electronic education, electronic libraries, and etc. These new socio – electronic phenomena and their dependent spatial forms are called Technoscapes. In this research, the new post industrial cities’ orders and their design characteristics have redefined and new concepts, forms and geometry in various layers of cities have introduced. 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Information City
  • global city
  • Urban Transformations
  • Space of flows
  • Privatization
  • De-concentrated Concentration
  • Technoscapes
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