Explanation of a Model to Predict Place-Based Affordance of Mosques in Tehran, Iran

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی


1 Instructor, Faculty of Architecture, Borujerd Branch, Islamic Azad University, Borujerd, Iran.

2 Professor, School of Architecture, College of Fine Arts, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.

3 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Art and Architecture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran.

عنوان مقاله [English]

Explanation of a Model to Predict Place-Based Affordance of Mosques in Tehran, Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Jalili 1
  • Alireza Einifar 2
  • Gholamreza Talischi 3
چکیده [English]

This study aimed to investigate the spatial perception and evaluation of the place-based affordance of mosques in Tehran. Reviewing the literature and applying Gibson`s affordance and Canter`s place theory, the new model called place-based affordance is proposed. In this model, each location contains two potential types of symbolic and behavioural affordance. Accordingly, throughout history, behavioural affordance of mosques including the holding of worship and civic-social activities and their symbolic affordance, including identity, sense of place and community. In this research, to identify the factors that affect the perception and evaluation of behavioral and symbolic affordance of mosques, correlation method or multiple regressions was used. On this basis, four contemporary mosques in Tehran were randomly selected with regional performance and worshipers` responses to the questionnaires were analysed. Research findings indicate that the perception of place-based affordance of mosques, respectively, is influenced by three factors: the physical characteristics, characteristics of perceiving person`s perception and context features. Using the proposed model, the place-based affordance of mosque can be identified and particularly the efficacy of affordance for each place, in general, based on cognitive processes and interactions with the environment can be analyzed.  

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • The Theory of Affordance
  • Place Theory
  • Place-Based Affordance
  • Behavioural Affordance
  • Symbolic Affordance

Bandura, A. (1974). Analysis of Modeling Processes. In A. Bandura (Ed.), Modeling: Conflicting Theories (Vol. 2, pp. 85-95). New York: Lieber-Atherton.

Bell, P.A., Greene, T.C., Fisher, J.D. & Baum, A. (2005). Environmental Psychology. New York: Psychology Press.

Canter, D. (1977). The Psychology of Place. London: Architectural Press.

Canter, D. (1991). Understanding, Assessing and Acting in Places: Is an Integrative Framework Possible?. In T. Garling & G. Evans (Eds), Environmental Cognition and Action: An Integrated Approach (Vol. 1, pp. 87-110). New York: Oxford University Press.

Canter, D. (1997). The Facts of Place. In G.T. Moore & R.W. Marans (Eds), Advances in Environment, Behaviour and Design (Vol. 4, pp. 44-51). New York: Plenum Press.

 Ettinghausen, R., & Graber, O. (1994). The Art and Architecture of Islam: 650-1250. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.

 Falahat, M. (2005). Sense of Place in the Physical Design of Mosques, HONAR-HA-YE-ZIBA, 22(5), 35-42.

 Falahat, M. (2007). Mosque Physical Design and Prayers’ Satisfaction, Abadi, 54(11), 16-19.

 Gibson, J.J. (1966). The Senses Considered As Perceptual Systems. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

 Gibson, J.J. (1979). An Ecological Approach to Visual Perception. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

 Gifford, R. (2007). Environmental Psychology: Principles and Practice. Colville, WA: Optimal Books. Hill, J. L. (1996). Psychological Sense of Community: Suggestions for Future Research. Journal of Community Psychology, 24(4), 431-438.

 Hillenbrand, R. (2004). Islamic Architecture: Form, Function, and Meaning. New York: Columbia University Press.

Hooman, H. (2007). Understanding Scientific Method in Behavioral Sciences. Tehran, Iran: SAMT Publications.

 Jorgensen, B., & Stedman, R. (2001). Sense of Place As an Attitude: Lakeshore Owner’s Attitudes toward Their Properties. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 21(11), 233-248.

Lang, J. (1987). Creating Architectural Theory: The Role of the Behavioural Sciences in Environmental Design.  New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company Inc.

Marans, R., & Spreckelmeyer, K. (1981). Evaluating Built Environments: A Behavioural Approach. Michigan: Ann Arbor.

 Mortada, H. (2011). Traditional Islamic Principles of Built Environment. New York: Routledge Curzon.

Noghrehkari, A. (2008). Introduction to Islamic Identity in Architecture and Urban Development. Tehran, Iran: Payam-e Sima Publication.

 Pirnia, M. (2008). Iranian Architecture. Tehran, Iran: Sorush-e Danesh Publications.

 Rollero, C., & Piccoli, N.D. (2010). Place Attachment, Identification and Environment Perception: An Empirical Study. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 30(9), 198205.

 Zargar, E. (2007). Guidance on Mosque Architecture. Tehran, Iran: Ministry of Housing and Urban Development, Deed Publications. URL1: http://www.masjed.ir/fa/mosques/tehranmasjed (visited on 2013).