مقایسه تحلیلی پهنه بندی اقلیمی مناطق جنوبی ایران با روش کوپن- تراورتا و معیارهای آسایش گیونی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش آموخته دکتری معماری، دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد علوم و تحقیقات، تهران، ایران.

2 استادیار معماری، دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد علوم و تحقیقات، گروه معماری، تهران، ایران.

3 دانشیار معماری، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

طبقه بندی اقلیمی کوپن یکی از شناخته شده ترین روش های اقلیم شناسی در جهان و روش کوپن- تراورتا یکی از ویرایش های تکمیلی آن، با اصلاحات غیر ساختاری است. در این سیستم، پهنه بندی بر اساس درجه حرارت و میزان بارش و خشکی انجام می شود. پهنه بندی اقلیمی گیونی بر اساس درجه حرارت، رطوبت نسبی و روش های ساختمانی و معیارهای آسایش حرارتی استوار است. هدف از انجام این مطالعه بررسی تفاوت نتایج حاصل از این دو نوع طبقه بندی با معیارهای سنجش متفاوت، به منظور کاهش اشتباهات در تصمیمات مبتنی بر اقلیم در ساختمان در مناطق جنوبی ایران است. منطقه مورد مطالعه در حد فاصل حاشیه شمالی خلیج فارس و دریای عمان با دامنه های جنوبی رشته کوه زاگرس قرار دارد. این اشتباهات هنگامی متصور می شود که طبقه بندی اقلیمی بر اساس یکی از ویرایش های روش کوپن، بدون توجه به معیارهای آسایش حرارتی انسان و راهکارهای ساختمانی انجام شده باشد. این مقاله با تطابق میانگین بیست ساله آمار دما و بارشِ مربوط به ایستگاه های سینوپتیک در مناطق جنوبی ایران با محدوده های اقلیمی تعیین شده در روش کوپن- تراورتا، این شهرها، بنادر و جزایر را طبقه بندی کرده است. سپس یافته ها را با پهنه بندی اقلیمی حاصل از انطباق میانگین بیست ساله آمار دما و رطوبت نسبی این ایستگا هها بر جدول زیست اقلیمی ساختمانی گیونی و با توجه به محدوده شاخص های آسایش حرارتی تعیین شده در این جدول مقایسه می کند. نتایج نشان می دهد، با به کارگیری روش کوپن تراورتا، دو گروه اصلی اقلیمی شامل حاره ای با تابستا نهای خشک و نیمه حاره ای با تابستان های خشک با پنج زیرگروه و از طریق روش گیونی نیز دو گروه اقلیمی اصلی در منطقه جنوبی ایران قابل تشخیص است. این نتایج نشان می دهد، روش کوپن- تراورتا زیرگروه های دقیق تر و ریزتری را در این منطقه تعیین می کند. دسته بندی های کلی در دو روش به غیر از ایستگاه بندر بوشهر در سایر ایستگاه های این منطقه نتایج یکسانی را نشان می دهند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Analysis of Climate Classifications in Southern Iran Based on Koppen-trewartha Method and Givonis’ Bioclimatic Index

نویسندگان [English]

  • Niloufar Nikghadam 1
  • Seyed Majid Mofidi Shemirani 2
  • Mansoureh Tahbaz 3
1 Ph.D. of Architecture, Department of Architecture, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
2 Assistant Professor of Architecture, Department of Architecture, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
3 Associate Professor of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Design, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Iran's southern marginal border has hot humid climate with dry summers, which is one of the world's most critical climates. Therefore, attention to climatic components in architecture design process within this area is essential. Statistics between the years 2009 to 2011 show that Iran's oil consumption in 2009 has been 1.4 times and natural gas consumption 3.1 times that of global average; and about 42% of total final energy consumption has been allocated to households only. The statistics indicates that less attention is paid to climate architecture in Iran. Different climate classifications have been conducted toward Iran for the past 50 years, which have various results, based on different evaluation criteria. The most important classification employed in Iran is Koppen's method that introduces the four-macroclimate arenas in Iran which was introduced in 1979 by Mohamad Hasam Ganji. Another method, which has held in Iran and generally applied by architects in building climatic design, is the classification based on Givoni's comfort model introduced in 2003 by Morteza Kasmaee. This method introduces eight macroclimates and thirty-six microclimates. Koppen's method is one of the most known and applicable systems of climate classification around the world and is used internationally because of the comprehensible system of demarcation. Koppen-Trewartha method is a modification of Koppens system with non-structural changes, which is more convenient in application and more distinct in the margins of arid and non-arid regions. This complementary method as an accurate method in the studied region is more accurate in distinguishing tropical and semitropical regions. Koppen-Trewartha classification has six macroclimatic regions because Semi tropical groups are added to the koppen's classification. The evaluation criterion in tropical, subtropical, temperate, boreal and polar groups is temperature. In Trewartha system, for the sixth group, which is dry group, the evaluation criterion is amount of precipitation. Dry group cuts across four of the thermal zones. As might be expected, the five thermal groups have a strong zonal orientation; however, this is much less true of the dry group. In this method, Climate Classification is established on temperature and precipitation, where Givoni’s method is based on temperature and relative humidity and at the same time human comfort and building systems. Since the classification criteria in Koppen method is not architectural, it is always doubted whether this method is reliable in architectural decision-making. The objective of this research is to find the difference of results in these two methods with different evaluating criterions, in order to reduce the climatic decision-making errors. The method of analysis and resultant in this research is quantitative based; data gathering has done from statistical studies between years 1989-2008, derived from Iran metrological organization information’s in 2011. Data gathering about definition of boundaries in the studied systems of Koppen, Koppen-Trewartha and Givoni is conducted by use of theoretical studies. The present study will compare the mean of twenty years` statistics of temperature and precipitation of twenty-four synoptic stations, located in the northern coasts of Persian Gulf - Oman Sea and south foothill of Zagros Mountain, with definitions of boundaries in Koppen-Trewartha method, in order to classify the Stations. Thenceforth the mean of twenty years` statistics of temperature and relative humidity in mentioned stations, would be indicated in bioclimatic chart of Givoni considering the appointed comfort zones. The result will be two Separate Classifications to identify the differences and thresholds. This research indicates that in studied stations the regions that are not expected to be tropical based on their latitude, classified in that group by their special morphology. Although these areas have high temperature and relative humidity throughout summer time, they have lowest precipitation in this period; maximum of annually 67.5 cm in Izeh station in Khoozestan province situated in west of Iran and minimum of 10.1 cm in Konarak station in Sistan Baloochestan situated in east of Iran. Koppen-Trewartha climate classification represents two main climatic groups, the first is tropical wet-anddry type with dry summers and two desert and steppe subdivisions. The latter Group is subtropical type with hot and dry summers with two desert and steppe subdivisions. By Givoni's classification using building bioclimatic chart, also two main climatic groups can be distinguished in this zone. The same Stations are included in these two groups as in the two main groups of Koppen-trewartha classification, except for Bushehr Station, which in Givoni's Classification is included in the first Group. The results show Koppen- Trewartha classification has more accurate and detailed subdivisions in this region. By accommodating the results in both systems, nearly the same main groups were observed except for Bushehr station in Coastal areas of Persian Gulf, and then climatic decisionmaking in architecture using Trewartha edition of Koppen system in this region is reliable except for Bushehr station. For architectural decision-making, it is recommended to relocate the Bushehr station in climate classification upon Givoni’s thermal comfort model.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Climate
  • South of Iran
  • Classification
  • Koppen-Trewartha
  • Givoni

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