کندوکاوی در انگاره های فرهنگی قوم کرد جهت طراحی فضاهای شهری مطلوب

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد گروه شهرسازی، دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران.

2 دانشیار گروه شهرسازی، دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران.

3 دانشجوی دکتری شهرسازی، دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

چکیده

فرهنگ به عنوان زیربنای ساخت جامعه و طراحی شهری به عنوان علم و هنر تولید فضا برای انسان ها همواره در کانون
توجه علوم مختلف بوده اند.کالبد فضای شهری به علاوه معنا و عملکرد (جنبه های غیرکالبدی مرتبط با انسان) و تجربه
فضا توسط انسان، آن را تبدیل به مکانی پویا جهت استفاده انسان خواهد کرد. توجه به انسان در گرو شناخت ویژگی های
او و شناخت ویژگی های انسان در گرو شناخت فرهنگی جامعه ای است که او در آن شکل گرفته است. در این میان توجه
طراحان به تفاوت ها و سلیقه های انسان ها در فرهنگ های مختلف (خرده فرهنگ ها)از آن جهت در طراحی شهری مهم
است که سنگ بنای ساخت جامعه انسانی و محیطی فرهنگی است. از آنجایی که شناخت انسان به رفتارهای او در اجتماعی
که در آن رشد کرده بستگی دارد، لذا فرهنگ به عنوان تبیین کننده رفتار انسان در هر جامعه ای، نقش اساسی در این
زمینه ایفا می نماید. دراین میان آنچه اهمیت دارد، نحوه استفاده از انگاره های فرهنگی در طراحی فضاهای شهری است.
بنابراین هنر طراح شهر تبدیل این انگاره ها و الگوهای فرهنگی به اصول قابل استفاده در طراحی فضاهای شهری است. از
آنجایی که انگار هها و الگوهای کالبدی نقش مهمی را در شکل دهی به فضاهای شهری دارند. این مقاله در تلاش است با
مرور توصیفی– تحلیلی قوم کرد به عنوان یکی از اقوام ایرانی دارای پیشینه فرهنگی غنی، انگاره های فرهنگی اثرگذار بر
بعد کالبدی را تبیین نموده و سپس به کندوکاو اصول نظم دهنده به طراحی فضاهای شهری در این انگاره ها بپردازد. بر
این اساس نقوش و ترکیبات شکلی دو بعدی، ریتم و تناسبات و رنگ، انگاره های فرهنگی اثرگذار بر بعد کالبدی تعیین
شده و در نهایت با تلفیق این انگاره ها اصول نظم دهنده به طراحی فضای شهری مطلوب برای قوم کرد ارائه شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Disquisition of Kurdish Cultural Postulates for Optimal Design of Urban Spaces

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Reza Pourjafar 1
  • Mojtaba Rafiean 2
  • Seyed Alireza Arbabzadegan Hashemi 3
1 Professor of Urban Design, Faculty of Art and Architecture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.
2 Associate Professor of Urban Planning, Faculty of Art and Architecture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.
3 Ph.D. Candidate in Urban Planning and Urban Design, Tarbiat Modarres University, Tehran & Lecturer of Urban Design, Faculty of Urban Design, Kamalolmolk University of Noshahr, Noshahr, Iran
چکیده [English]

Culture as infrastructure of building community always has considered in different Science. Every society has a culture that distinguishes it from other human societies. Culture, in its simplest definition is the string that binds man to his environment. Culture is a reflection of a society's level of consciousness and daily activities of humans. Human beings are different in terms of psychological and sociological and anthropological features; such as urban design as an art and science of creating the spaces for people.
Urban design is trying to provide physical- Functional and Semantic components in a unique format. It means considering physical and also meaning and identity aspects of space. Semantic component of urban design is trying to create a space to meet the spiritual needs of humans. Urban design is considering these aspects in a social context.
Therefore, humans and the features are the most important factors which give meanings to the urban space and meet the spiritual needs of humans. The physics of urban space with meaning and function (non-physical aspects related to human), is also the experience of space by people who transform it into a dynamic place for them use. So urban design can’t be believed as modernists: globally unchangeable product. It's the proportion of people and the relations between them. Methods that pay attention to community values will combine physical and non- physical aspects of urban design. Urban space is a sociocultural space that shapes based on the needs of people. In order to find design guideline of urban space for a special culture, we can investigate various aspects of them. Urban design has two dimensions: one of them is independent from the position and intervention and another is opposite. Due to more attention to the first dimension, in the 1980s the importance of urban spaces declined and urban designers had to pay special attention to other aspect of urban design. Since 1980s, a lot of researches have tried to achieve quality of urban spaces. Quality is an aspect of urban space based on the behaviors that happen in urban space. For achieving quality in urban spaces, urban designers had to pay attention to the behaviors of people and culture of the society. Regarding to that, each country's culture reflects its identity. The culture is rooted in groups residing in the country. Attention to ethnics and cultural considerations in designing the city can provide creative design and also logical and successful outreach.
Therefore, designers should be noticed to the preferences and differences of humans in different cultures (sub-cultures). Because urban design is the infrastructure of human society and builds a cultural environment. Culture, which means "a society how to respond to its needs", is one of the issues that undoubtedly is the highest rank to achieve good urban design which help designers not having an imposing plan for a society without temporal dimensions. Therefore, humans and the features are the most important factors that can make an urban space meaningful and meet spiritual needs of humans. Understanding humans' features depends on recognizing their behaviors in the society that shaped them.
Therefore, dominant culture, as explaining behaviors in any societies, plays a major role in this regard. It can be concluded that urban design should not only be designed for homogenous society, it must be able to use cultural diversity to create an attractive and dynamic space.
As regards, using these cultural patterns in designing urban spaces is very important, so the art of urban designer is to convert these cultural patterns to urban spaces context.
In last decade, vernacular of urban design was a term that has been used in the literature. This means that every nation, tribe, town and neighborhood has its own design parameters. In this context, our country doesn’t have remarkable administrative action in design principles for indigenous peoples and cities.
This article first attempts to review descriptive- analytical study of Kurdish people as one of the Iranian Ethnic with a rich cultural background, to explain cultural postulates that influence on physical dimensions of urban spaces and then explore the organizing principles in designing urban spaces between these postulates .So patterns and combinations of two-dimensional forms, rhythm, proportions and color are determined as cultural postulates that influence on physical dimension. Designing principles are extracted from the first two postulates, then the results of colors have been added, and finally the organizing principles to optimal design of urban spaces for Kurdish people has been presented.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • culture
  • Cultural Postulate
  • Urban Design
  • Urban Space
  • Kurdish People

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