عنوان مقاله [English]
Culture as infrastructure of building community always has considered in different Science. Every society has a culture that distinguishes it from other human societies. Culture, in its simplest definition is the string that binds man to his environment. Culture is a reflection of a society's level of consciousness and daily activities of humans. Human beings are different in terms of psychological and sociological and anthropological features; such as urban design as an art and science of creating the spaces for people.
Urban design is trying to provide physical- Functional and Semantic components in a unique format. It means considering physical and also meaning and identity aspects of space. Semantic component of urban design is trying to create a space to meet the spiritual needs of humans. Urban design is considering these aspects in a social context.
Therefore, humans and the features are the most important factors which give meanings to the urban space and meet the spiritual needs of humans. The physics of urban space with meaning and function (non-physical aspects related to human), is also the experience of space by people who transform it into a dynamic place for them use. So urban design can’t be believed as modernists: globally unchangeable product. It's the proportion of people and the relations between them. Methods that pay attention to community values will combine physical and non- physical aspects of urban design. Urban space is a sociocultural space that shapes based on the needs of people. In order to find design guideline of urban space for a special culture, we can investigate various aspects of them. Urban design has two dimensions: one of them is independent from the position and intervention and another is opposite. Due to more attention to the first dimension, in the 1980s the importance of urban spaces declined and urban designers had to pay special attention to other aspect of urban design. Since 1980s, a lot of researches have tried to achieve quality of urban spaces. Quality is an aspect of urban space based on the behaviors that happen in urban space. For achieving quality in urban spaces, urban designers had to pay attention to the behaviors of people and culture of the society. Regarding to that, each country's culture reflects its identity. The culture is rooted in groups residing in the country. Attention to ethnics and cultural considerations in designing the city can provide creative design and also logical and successful outreach.
Therefore, designers should be noticed to the preferences and differences of humans in different cultures (sub-cultures). Because urban design is the infrastructure of human society and builds a cultural environment. Culture, which means "a society how to respond to its needs", is one of the issues that undoubtedly is the highest rank to achieve good urban design which help designers not having an imposing plan for a society without temporal dimensions. Therefore, humans and the features are the most important factors that can make an urban space meaningful and meet spiritual needs of humans. Understanding humans' features depends on recognizing their behaviors in the society that shaped them.
Therefore, dominant culture, as explaining behaviors in any societies, plays a major role in this regard. It can be concluded that urban design should not only be designed for homogenous society, it must be able to use cultural diversity to create an attractive and dynamic space.
As regards, using these cultural patterns in designing urban spaces is very important, so the art of urban designer is to convert these cultural patterns to urban spaces context.
In last decade, vernacular of urban design was a term that has been used in the literature. This means that every nation, tribe, town and neighborhood has its own design parameters. In this context, our country doesn’t have remarkable administrative action in design principles for indigenous peoples and cities.
This article first attempts to review descriptive- analytical study of Kurdish people as one of the Iranian Ethnic with a rich cultural background, to explain cultural postulates that influence on physical dimensions of urban spaces and then explore the organizing principles in designing urban spaces between these postulates .So patterns and combinations of two-dimensional forms, rhythm, proportions and color are determined as cultural postulates that influence on physical dimension. Designing principles are extracted from the first two postulates, then the results of colors have been added, and finally the organizing principles to optimal design of urban spaces for Kurdish people has been presented.
Arbabzadegan, A. (2011). Design of Urban Public Spaces Based on Ethnic Sub culture: Case Study: Region 22 of
Tehran (Urban Design Master's Thesis), Tehran: Urban Design and Architecture Faculty of Art, Tarbiat Modares
Assori, D. (1999), Definition and Concepts of Culture, Tehran: Agah Publication, 2Ed.
Bahreyni, S.H. (1998).Urban Design Process. Tehran: Tehran University publication.
Carmona, M., Heath, T., Oc, T., & Tiesdell, S. (2006). Public Places, Urban Spaces. Oxford, Architectural Press,
Feraante, J. (1995). Sociality. Betmont, Wadsworth Publishers Company,2Ed.
Golkar, K. (2000). Constrictive Element of Urban Designing Quality. Quarterly Journal Research Sofeh, 32,
Grutter, J.K.(1987). Aesthetics of Architecture: Basics of Architectural Perception (J. Pakzad, A. Homayun,
Trans.). Tehran: Shahid Beheshti University publication, 2 Ed.
Kumar, S., Martin G. (2004). A Case for Culturally Responsive Urban Design. The Ontario Planning Journal, 19,
Lefebvre, H.(2009) State, Space, World. London: University of Minnesota Press.
Pakzad, J. (2006). Literature Review and Process of Urban Design, Tehran: Shahidi Publication, Secretariat of the
Urban Planning and Architecture Higher Council of Iran.
Ranjdost, SH. (2008). Clothing History of Iran, Tehran: Jamal Honar Publication.
Ranjbar, M., Sotoudeh, H. (1997). Anthropology Emphasized on Culture of Iran's People. Tehran: Nedaye Ariana
Safvat, D., Karon, N. (2009). National Iranian Music (S. Salimzadeh, Trans.), Tehran: Nik Ketabsara Publication.
Sarafraz, H. (2007). In Definition of Iranian Culture, Tehran: Agah Publication.
Soresrafiul, Sh. (2007). Kurdish Carpet 1(Kurdestan), Iranian History Publication.
Sternberg, E. (2000). An Integrative Theory of Urban Design. Journal of the American Planning Association,
Tylor, E.B. (1991). Dictionary of Anthropology. Delhi, Jawaha Nagar.
Vaziri, A. (2008). Theory of Music. (Dorodi, S., Ed.). Tehran: SafiAlishah publication, 4Ed.