سنجش و تحلیل شاخص های کیفیت زندگی شهری با استفاده از تکنیک TOPSIS در شهر مشهد

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار و عضو هیأت علمی، دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد علوم و تحقیقات تهران، تهران، ایران.

2 کارشناس ارشد برنامه ریزی منطقه ای، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

3 دانشجوی دکتری شهرسازی، دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد مشهد، مشهد، ایران.

چکیده

توسعه شهرنشینی و به تبع آن شک لگیری طبقات متمایز اجتماعی منجر به طبقاتی شدن فضای جغرافیایی شده است. از این رو گسترش نامتقارن کیفیت زندگی شهری یکی از مهم ترین ابزارها برای پی بردن به وجود نابرابری های اجتماعی در هر جامعه می باشد. لذا اهداف این مقاله را می توان شناسایی، اولوی تبندی و سنجش شاخص های کیفیت زندگی شهری در مناطق 13 گانه شهرداری مشهد برشمرد. از این رو با استفاده از شاخص های حجم ترافیک و دسترسی به حمل ونقل عمومی در بعد ارتباطات و حمل ونقل، بار تکفل در بعد اقتصادی، میزان باسوادان در بعد اجتماعی، تراکم خانوار در واحد مسکونی، کیفیت ساختمان ، و میزان بافت فرسوده در بعد کالبدی، پراکندگی جمعیت در بعد محیط زیست و سرانه کاربری های آموزشی، تجاری، فرهنگی، ورزشی، فضای سبز و بهداشتی- درمانی در بعد تسهیلات و خدمات عمومی و با روش سنجش عینی و با استفاده از نرم افزار GIS، مناطق شهرداری مشهد مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفته شده است. سپس ماهیت و وزن هریک از شاخص ها با توجه به نظر کارشناسان مشخص شد. در انتها با استفاده از تکنیک تاپسیس، اولویت مناطق شهرداری مشهد به لحاظ کیفیت زندگی مورد سنجش قرار گرفت. یافته های تحقیق حاکی از آن است که سرانه آموزشی، سرانه بهداشتی- درمانی، سرانه فضای سبز، بار تکفل، تراکم خانوار در واحد مسکونی، سطح سرویس ترافیک و دسترسی به ایستگاه های حمل ونقل عمومی به ترتیب دارای اولویت برای سنجش کیفیت زندگی می باشند. همچنین مناطق 12و 10 و 7 شهرداری مشهد به ترتیب بهترین کیفیت زندگی را به لحاظ شاخص های بررسی شده دارا می باشند. درطرف مقابل، مناطق 5، 3 و 6 پایین ترین کیفیت زندگی را بین مناطق شهرداری مشهد به خود اختصاص داده اند. این نکته حائز اهمیت است که مناطق دارای جایگاه بالاتر کیفیت زندگی، اغلب جزء محدوده های توسعه جدید شهر می باشند و از طرف دیگر، مناطق دارای جایگاه پایین تر کیفیت زندگی اغلب به لحاظ ارزش اقتصادی نسبت به سایر مناطق پایین تر می باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Assessment and Analysis of Urban Life Quality by Using TOPSIS Technique in Mashhad

نویسندگان [English]

  • Zahra Sadat Saeideh Zarabadi 1
  • Naser Nejati Alaf 2
  • Homa Jalili Safarian 3
1 Assistant Professor, Department of Art and Architecture, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
2 M.A. of Regional Planning, Department of Architecture and Urban Planning, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.
3 Ph.D. Candidate of Urban Planning, Department of Art and Architecture, Islamic Azad University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Although cities were the homes of only 10 percent of the world's population in the last century, in 2005 more than half of the world's population lived in the cities and metropolitan cities. So, following increasing urbanization and the formation of distinct social classes, geographic spaces have divided to some classes. Hence the uneven spread of urban life quality is one of the most important tools for understanding social inequality in society. In regarding to this issue, one of the most important roles of urban planners is assessment and analysis of urban life quality in order to plan for facilities and infrastructures and also create equal opportunities for all residents. So, social justice will be established. Unfortunately the growth rates of the slums in the cities of the developing countries are double the growth rates of the cities themselves. Furthermore, in many developing countries the proportion of the urban population living in slums is estimated more than 30 percent. Mashhad is the second biggest city of Iran and in 2010 its population was about 3 million people. It is a religious city with large number of pilgrims in each. Recently a great number of people have immigrated to Mashhad because of job opportunities which are more than other close cities. As a matter of fact, emigrants who cannot buy a house in the city have to live in the slums. In 2010 the numbers of people who live in the slums of Mashhad were about one third, the highest rate in Iran. Hence, quality of urban life is one of the most issues which should be addressed. Therefore, this paper aims to identify, prioritize and assess the indicators of the quality of urban life in thirteen regions of Mashhad municipality. Thus, by using multiple indicators of transport, economic, social, physical, environmental, and public service and an objective assessment method and GIS software, regions of Mashhad municipality were assessed. Then, the nature and weight of each indicator was determined according to the experts. Finally, using TOPSIS technique, priority regions of Mashhad municipality in terms of quality of life were assessed. The research method is based on analyzing secondary data and formal related documents about the quality of urban life in thirteen regions of Mashhad municipality. In addition, the academic sources with regard to the quality of urban life have been reviewed to provide the theoretical framework for the problems. The findings of this study indicate that the dimensions of the economy, public services, transportation, social, physical and environmental priorities are important in order to assess the quality of life. In order to the traffic service level index, regions 12 and 10 ranked as the best regions due to the fact that these regions are located in the edge of the city. On the other hand, region 3 which is located on the CBD of city ranked as the worst region. Also, the quality of buildings in region 12 is the best one due to the fact that this region is the newest area of the city which is constructed. In other indicators such as per capita sports or education area, region 12 is the best among other regions of Mashhad. Therefore, regions 12, 10 and 7 of Mashhad are the best in terms of quality of life indicators which have been investigated. In contrast, regions 5, 3 and 6 have the lowest quality. It is important to note that the regions with a higher quality of life are often part of the new development area of city. So, it is obvious that the urban managers have paid more attention to this region than other regions. Also, regions with lower quality of life, often in terms of economic value are lower than other regions. Hence, it is necessary that both planers and urban managers pay more attention to the regions that are less developed than other regions and distribute facilities and public infrastructures equally. Also it is needed to apply strategic planning in order to guarantee social justice and improvement of quality of urban life.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Quality of Urban Life
  • Objective Assessment Method
  • TOPSIS Technique
  • Mashhad

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