رویکرد طراحی الگوریتمیک و راهکارهای معماری بومی ایران در بهره گیری و کنترل نور روز: چگونگی بهره گیری از راهکارهای معماری گذشته در راستای طراحی نماهای شفافِ معاصر

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه علم و صنعت ایران، تهران، ایران.

2 پژوهشگر دوره دکتری معماری، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه علم و صنعت ایران، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

مقاله حاضر با هدف ارتقاء توامانِ عملکرد اقلیمی آرایه ای پوسته های خارجی ساختمان، به معرفی یک روشِ ترکیبی در سازماندهی عناصر تشکیل دهنده نما می پردازد. روش مذکور، معاصرسازی تکنیک های معماری بومی ایران در بهره گیری و کنترل نور روز، از طریقِ رویکرد طراحی الگوریتمیک و در یک فرآیند تکاملی را پیشنهاد می نماید، روشی که به ضرورتِ وحدت هنر و فنآوری در طراحی معماری پایدار اشاره دارد. الگوهای هندسی ایرانی اسلامی، ساختار کالبدی و آرایه ای عناصر بومی تأمین کننده نور روز را شکل می دهند، این الگوها می توانند مجدداً مطابق با روح حاکم بر معماری معاصر بازآفرینی شوند، تا علاوه بر پاسخگویی به دغدغه های زیست محیطی، در برگیرنده کیفیات بصری ویژه ای نیز باشند. به بیان دیگر رویکردهای نوین در طراحی معاصر از جمله رویکردهای پارامتریک این امکان را فراهم می آورند که ساختار هندسی و فرم معمولِ عناصر اقلیمی آرایه ای معماری بومیِ ایران از قالب سنتی خود خارج شده و دوباره بر مبنای ادغام توامانِ گرایشاتِ زیبایی شناسانه و ملزوماتِ عملکردی، سازماندهی شوند. بدین ترتیب معماری عملکرد محوری پدید
می آید که علاوه بر کارایی بالا در تأمین اهدافِ عملکردی خود متناسب با دغدغه های فرمال و آرایه ای معماری معاصر شکل گرفته است. در مقاله حاضر عملکرد اقلیمی آرایه ای عناصر بومی در بهر هگیری و کنترل نور روز مد نظر قرار داشته است به این منظور ارسی به عنوان یک نمونه از این عناصر مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. ارسی ها متشکل از یک مشبک چوبی با ساختار هندسی ایرانی اسلامی هستند که قطعاتی از شیشه های رنگی در میان شبکه های هندسی آن جانمایی می شده اند، پارامترهای تشکیل دهنده این عنصر اقلیمی آرایه ای مجدداً از طریق رویکردِ طراحی الگوریتمیک بازآفرینی شده و ویژگی های آرایه ای و عملکردی آن مطابق با اهداف پژوهش معاصرسازی شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Algorithmic Design Approach (ADA) and Iranian Daylighting Techniques: How a Contemporary Transparent Façade Could Be Evolved From a Previous Solution

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ahmad Ekhlassi 1
  • Majid Mofidi Shemirani 1
  • Nezamedin Anbari Ruzbahani 2
1 Assistant Professor at IUST, Department of Architecture and Urban design.
2 PhD. Student at IUST, Department of Architecture and Urban design.
چکیده [English]

This paper proposes a synthetic method in façade design; composition of Algorithmic Design Approach (ADA) and Iranian vernacular day lighting techniques to integrate art and technology in architecture evolutionary. Geometric patterns which make up the formal and ornamental structure of the vernacular Iranian day lighting devices could be merged with spirit of the age towards the integrated performance oriented façade design and engineering. ADA implies an algorithmic observing system to control the formal and spatial structures in architecture. This façade design method -composition of vernacular techniques and Algorithmic knowledge- not only provides acceptable responses to the environmental concerns but also comprises aesthetic features, well-proportioned with the contemporary streams and desires. In the other world, using contemporary modes of computation and geometric modelling with special regards to parametric design allows us to depart from the conventional typologies of Iranian-Islamic art and architecture in order to extend the existing boundaries and lead to the new possibilities to accommodate building’s faces with the new era demands for nonlinear, heterogeneous, complex skins while -in this case- they saved their climatic performance potentials. Because of combining attributes of both appearance and performance in a way unlike any other building parts, the architecture facade has been a focal point for building scientists and designers. From the article’s perspective to achieve the best result in façade design, integration between art and technology is needed. This integration could be established through innovation or via metamorphosis. In the present article, innovation based design is called revolutionary design approach while the metamorphosis based one is called evolutionary design approach. True architecture innovations must necessarily respect past achievements but architecture is connected to the place and time, it is connected to actions in time, qualifying temporal conditions and affecting our own passage of time. So the proper type of architecture changes through the time and place while it respects the old architectural lessons. Using vernacular design concepts and ideas in architecture, we may take advantages of examined solutions for the future architecture. That’s what we call metamorphosis in this
paper. As it was described; Metamorphosis is the basic concept of evolutionary design approach in architecture. In the case of the article the main concept of contemporary façade design could be extracted from a previous solution.
whereas architecture needs to be connected to the culture, its materiality changes via capturing forces from the current social demands and urban setting while it should be responsive to the environmental regulation and energy saving problems. Concerns about the global energy uses have increased the architects’ motivation to replace day lighting  techniques and solar heat instead of electric lighting and regular heating and cooling systems. Iran as a hot-arid region has more than 280 sunny days. In one hand this amount of solar radiation provide a unique condition to use this environmental potential in different sustainable strategies for energy saving, on the other hand this issue makes it inevitable to control the undesirable effects of sun exposure and radiation through different shading devices. Using different design ideas in architecture, we may take advantage of natural lighting for the interior. Studies revealed different window concepts used in Iranian traditional architecture that will make clear the principles of the former, still rich in nature, which can give valuable lessons to modern architecture. The paper proposes an evolutionary approach in contemporary transparent façade design by means of evolving forms from previous Iranian vernacular architectural solutions the same as Orosis and its components. To this end, converting a vernacular- traditional day lighting device with ornamental definitions into a high-performance contemporary one could be achieved by parametric analysing coupled with geometrical practices as the main research method. Based on the above mentioned principles, it is expected that the evolutionary design approach which is rooted more deeply in the old experienced concepts, makes strong connection with the spirit of the age and social demands the same as identity issues while its climatic performance previously proved from the empirical field examinations. In conclusion, a specific case study using “Orosi” is presented as an example which is constructed from a lattice work (Moshabaks) and stained glass used in that lattice patterns. This different device and its parameters are also discussed regarding to the algorithmic design approach. The article used ADA on mentioned vernacular manner to combine attributes of both appearance and climatic performance to contemporize it.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Algorithmic Design Approach (ADA)
  • Iranian Vernacular Day lighting Techniques
  • Parametric Modelling
  • contemporize

-- Ahani, F. (2011). Natural Light in Traditional Architecture of Iran: Lessons to remember, International conference

on Light in Engineering, Architecture and the Environment, WIT press, Southhampton, UK.

-- Ahmed, S., Chase, S. (2004). Design Generation of the Central Asian Caravanserai, 1st ASCAAD conf. audi

Arabia.

-- Araya, S. (2011). Performative Architecture, PhD. Thesis, MIT university, USA.

-- Broug. E. (2013). Escher Meets Islamic Art, Amesterdam Art station.

-- Caldas, L. (2001). An Evolution-Based Generative System: Using Adaptation to Shape Architectural Form, Ph.D.

thesis, chapter No.1, MIT.

-- Cenani, S., Cagdas, G. (2007). A Shape Grammar Study: Form Generation with Geometric Islamic Patterns.

-- Chutart, A. (2001). Experinece of Light: The Use of an Inverse Method and a Genetic Algorithm in Daylighting

Design, Ph.D. thesis, MIT university, USA..

-- Cohan, J. (2013). Adaptive Architectural Skins and Dynamic Environmental Conditions.

-- Gagne, J. (2011). An Interactive Performance-Based Expert System for Daylighting in Architectural Design, Ph.D.

thesis, 25-31, MIT.

-- Golabchi, et. al (2010). Digital Architecture, UT publication, Tehran, Iran.

-- Haghshenas, M., Ghiabklou, Z. (2008). Investigation of Tinted Glazing’s Effect in Transmission of Daylight and

Energy in the Visible Spectrum, Olum va fanavari Rang, vol. 2, (213-220).

-- Hensel, M., Menges, A. (2006). MORPHO-ECOLOGIES, AA publication, London.

-- Kim, J. (2012). Adaptive Façade Design for Daylighting Performance in an Office Building: An Investigation of

the Opening Design Strategy from Cellular Automata, ISLBC conference. Nottingham, UK. (1-22).

-- Lovell, J. (2010). http://www.papress.com/html/book.details.page.tpl?isbn=9781568988184

-- Mofidi, M., Ghazi-Jahani, M. (2012). Vernacular Daylighting for Hot-Arid Climates: A Response to Climate

Change, International Journal of climate change, Vol. 3.

-- Mofid, M., Ekhlassi, A., AnbariRuzbahani, N. (2013). Algorithmic Design Approach(ADA) and Iranian Daylighting

Techniques; A Methodology for Contemporary Transparent Environmentally-Responsive Facade Design,

ICAMA2013 Conf., Ryerson university, Toronto, Canada.

-- Musavi, F. (2006). Function of Ornaments, Harvard press.

-- Moussavi, F. (2011). On the Need for Parametric Thinking (http://www.architectural-review.com/issues/october-

2011/parametric-software-is-no-substitute-for-parametric-thinking/8620000.article).

-- Omidfar, A. (2011). A Methodology for Designing High Performance Shading Screen, Submitted for publication

to Building Simulation conference, 2011 in Sydney (November 2011).

-- Patterson, M., Matusova, J. (2013). High-Performance Facades, Conference in New York.

-- Salingaros, N. (2006). A Theory of Architecture, Saeed zarinmehr & zoheir motaki, Architecute and Urbanism

Research Center, Tehran, Iran.

-- Salingaros, N. (2010). Algorithmic Sustainable Design, Chapter No. 1, Umbau-Verlage.

-- Tahbaz, M., Moosavi, F. (2009). Daylighting Methods in Iranian Traditional Architecture (GREEN LIGHTING),

RENEWABLES IN A CHANGING CLIMATE From Nano to Urban Scale, CISBAT international conference,

EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland, (273-279).

-- Terzidis, K. (2006). Algorithmic Architecture, Architectural Press & Elsevier, Oxford, USA.

-- Turrin, M. (2011). Performative Skins for Passive Climatic Comfort; A Parametric Design Process, Automation

in construction. Elsevier, (6-12).

-- Turrin, M. (2011). Design Exploration of Performance Driven Geometry in Architetural Design Using Parametric

Modeling and Genetic Algorithms, Advanced Engineering Informatics.

-- Zhao, L., Shen, J., et. al (2012). Impact of Window Shading Devices on Energy Performance of Prototypical

Buildings, IBPSA.