عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
One’s perception of space changes with alterations in light while all other factors remain constant. Also emotions associated with light influence one’s performance. Nowadays, facilitated access to artificial lighting sources, abundance and inexpensive supply of electrical energy has made quantity replace quality. Innovative methods to control daylight are seen in the ancient architecture of Iran and human beings were the main pillars in such models. Ancient architecture which introduced humanism in design, has always been emphasized by Iranians. The knowledge that its attempt is to use the physical structure of human beings as a scheme is called ergonomics science. The science of ergonomics which is also called architectural psychology is categorized into two major classes named macroergonomy and microergonomy. Microergonomy investigates the physical factors in the environment of which light has been considered the most significant one. This research has attempted to examine the qualitative characteristics of light and their influences on satisfaction of the users. Among main objectives of ergonomics in architecture including methods of using light quantity and quality alongside each other for purposes of increasing spatial utility in conformity to needs of users, focusing on providing the spiritual, psychological and applied needs of users in order to reach the greatest amount of satisfaction and performance within space is provided. In this study, two grand mosques from the Saffavid dynasty called the Imam and the Sheikh Lotfollah mosque were selected due to their artistic use of the qualitative characteristics of light in creating a spiritual feeling and then compared to two contemporary mosques in the city of Tehran named Ghoba mosque (light provided from the surface of the dome) and the great mosque of Shahrak-Gharb (light provided from the tholobate of the dome). Contemporary mosques have considered all the principles of mosque architecture except for utilizing natural light. The combination of dome area and altar is considered as the foundation for the divine atmosphere of mosque architecture due to its sanctity and thus an appropriate atmosphere for evaluating the relationship between daylight and spiritualism from the ergonomic approach point of view. For this purpose the global index for ergonomic lighting survey and its analytical software, the ELI calculator were used to present the qualitative information as quantitative data within a 5 dimensional graph (spider web) and table. The charts indicate the minimum required scores for lighting within a specific space. The advantages of this method as compared to the traditional architecture methods is in discovery of the influence of natural light on the general satisfaction of users. The index measures ergonomic factors in architecture such as visual quality, hearing performance, visual relaxation, vivacity and capability. The distribution and collection of questionnaires has been carried out in summer when the sky was clear and light was at its best. The questionnaires were answered by groups of prayers within normal days. Upon completion of these graphic charts, in order to reach a more precise numerical data, questionnaires’ information were transferred into SPSS software data and have been subjected to statistical analysis.
Research results indicate that performance enhancement and hearing convenience are achieved through the design offered for rooflights. The phenomenon is achieved through structuring rooflights higher than 2.3 internal altitude and factors relating to their specific design. In all mosques a uniform lighting is observed throughout the year. Serenity and concentration during prayer times are a product of enhanced performance and hearing convenience. Daylight can be a determining factor in the relationships between individuals and act as a stimulus for the visitor to indulge in praying; its quality reflecting one’s satisfaction throughout prayer. Ergonomic indices are presented in two groups. Factors such as visual quality (A) and hearing convenience (C) study quantity of light and are related to quantitative aspects of light. Perspective (B) and environmental vivacity (D) investigate lighting quality. Ancient and contemporary mosque architects have paid attention to the quantitative factors of lighting and no significant statistical difference is observed between them; yet their only difference is in applying qualitative factors of ergonomic lighting. Architects of ancient mosques have conformed to the standards offered for quality of ergonomic lighting and in certain instances have even gone beyond those standards, yet negligence of contemporary architects is visible. The corridors of the Sheikh Lotfollah and Imam Mosque are beyond standard limits offered for ergonomic lighting. The mere application of minimum standards for accessing daylight (spiritualism purposes) is not adequate. Unfortunately in the majority of contemporary structures methods that can enhance the spiritualism of mosques have been ignored. The importance of utilizing uniform lighting in design is continually increased while light is not merely illuminated and what is superior is its ability in creating spiritualism within light. Finally it should be mentioned that the science of ergonomics as introduced by western researchers in 2010 had been presenting itself in mentality and designs of ancient Iranian architects and ergonomics could be named as the native knowledge of Iran.
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