کندوکاوی در نسبتِ ارگونومی و معنویت بخشی نور روز در معماری مساجد

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناسی ارشد معماری، دانشکده ی معماری دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد خوراسگان، اصفهان، ایران، پژوهشگر و مدرس دانشگاه

2 کارشناسی ارشد بهداشت حرفه ای، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

ادراک انسان از فضا با تغییر روشنایی در عین ثابت بودن سایر عوامل تغییر می کند و احساس ناشی از آن بر عملکرد فرد تأثیر دارد؛ اما در دوران معاصر دسترسی راحت به منابع روشنایی مصنوعی و عرضه ی فراوان و ارزان انرژی الکتریکی کمیت را جایگزین کیفیت نموده است. شیوه های کنترل نور روز در جهت افزایش بهره وری فرد از فضا به شیوه ی خلاقانه ای در معماری تاریخی ایران به کار رفته و انسان رکن اصلی این طراحی محسوب می شود. دانشی که امروزه به تطبیق دادن محیط با شرایط و ساختار فیزیکی انسان می پردازد، ارگونومی نام دارد.  میکروارگونومی زیرمجموعه ی ارگونومی به بررسی عوامل فیزیکی محیط می پردازد که روشنایی بخش مهمی از آن تلقی می شود. تحقیق حاضر با هدف بررسی چگونگی تأثیرات کیفی و کمی نور روز بر رضایت فرد حین عبادت دو مسجد والا از عصر صفویه، مسجد امام و مسجد شیخ لطف الله را به دلیل کاربرد هنرمندانه ی ویژگی های کیفی نور در جهت ایجاد احساس معنویت در فرد انتخاب نموده و با دو مسجد معاصر، مسجد قبا و مسجد جامع شهرک غرب مقایسه کرده است. بدین منظور از پرسشنامه ی شاخص جهانی روشنایی ارگونومیکی و نرم افزار تحلیل گر آن SPSS و ELI-calculator استفاده شده تا اطلاعات کیفی به داده های کمی تبدیل شود. نتایج تحقیق نشان می دهد که بهبود عملکرد و آسایش بصری از طریق طراحی نورگیرها میسر می شود. نور روز می تواند عاملی تعیین کننده در میزان روابط افراد و تحریک کننده ی حسّ کاربر برای عبادت باشد و چگونگی آن رضایت فرد را حین عبادت رقم می زند. در نهایت باید گفت دانشی که محققان غرب با عنوان ارگونومی فضایی در سال 2010 در جهان پایه گذاری نمودند، بیش از چهارصد سال پیش در تفکرات و طراحی های معماران قدیم ایرانی ظهور عینی یافته و می توان ارگونومی را دانش بومی سرزمین ایران نام نهاد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

An Investigation on the Ergonomic Proportion and Spirituality of Daylight in Architecture of Mosques

نویسندگان [English]

  • Marzieh Hoomani Rad 1
  • Ashkboos Sharafi Nafar 2
چکیده [English]

One’s perception of space changes with alterations in light while all other factors remain constant. Also emotions associated with light influence one’s performance. Nowadays, facilitated access to artificial lighting sources, abundance and inexpensive supply of electrical energy has made quantity replace quality. Innovative methods to control daylight are seen in the ancient architecture of Iran and human beings were the main pillars in such models. Ancient architecture which introduced humanism in design, has always been emphasized by Iranians. The knowledge that its attempt is to use the physical structure of human beings as a scheme is called ergonomics science. The science of ergonomics which is also called architectural psychology is categorized into two major classes named macroergonomy and microergonomy. Microergonomy investigates the physical factors in the environment of which light has been considered the most significant one. This research has attempted to examine the qualitative characteristics of light and their influences on satisfaction of the users. Among main objectives of ergonomics in architecture including methods of using light quantity and quality alongside each other for purposes of increasing spatial utility in conformity to needs of users, focusing on providing the spiritual, psychological and applied needs of users in order to reach the greatest amount of satisfaction and performance within space is provided. In this study, two grand mosques from the Saffavid dynasty called the Imam and the Sheikh Lotfollah mosque were selected due to their artistic use of the qualitative characteristics of light in creating a spiritual feeling and then compared to two contemporary mosques in the city of Tehran named Ghoba mosque (light provided from the surface of the dome) and the great mosque of Shahrak-Gharb (light provided from the tholobate of the dome). Contemporary mosques have considered all the principles of mosque architecture except for utilizing natural light. The combination of dome area and altar is considered as the foundation for the divine atmosphere of mosque architecture due to its sanctity and thus an appropriate atmosphere for evaluating the relationship between daylight and spiritualism from the ergonomic approach point of view. For this purpose the global index for ergonomic lighting survey and its analytical software, the ELI calculator were used to present the qualitative information as quantitative data within a 5 dimensional graph (spider web) and table. The charts indicate the minimum required scores for lighting within a specific space. The advantages of this method as compared to the traditional architecture methods is in discovery of the influence of natural light on the general satisfaction of users. The index measures ergonomic factors in architecture such as visual quality, hearing performance, visual relaxation, vivacity and capability. The distribution and collection of questionnaires has been carried out in summer when the sky was clear and light was at its best. The questionnaires were answered by groups of prayers within normal days. Upon completion of these graphic charts, in order to reach a more precise numerical data, questionnaires’ information were transferred into SPSS software data and have been subjected to statistical analysis.
Research results indicate that performance enhancement and hearing convenience are achieved through the design offered for rooflights. The phenomenon is achieved through structuring rooflights higher than 2.3 internal altitude and factors relating to their specific design. In all mosques a uniform lighting is observed throughout the year. Serenity and concentration during prayer times are a product of enhanced performance and hearing convenience. Daylight can be a determining factor in the relationships between individuals and act as a stimulus for the visitor to indulge in praying; its quality reflecting one’s satisfaction throughout prayer. Ergonomic indices are presented in two groups. Factors such as visual quality (A) and hearing convenience (C) study quantity of light and are related to quantitative aspects of light. Perspective (B) and environmental vivacity (D) investigate lighting quality. Ancient and contemporary mosque architects have paid attention to the quantitative factors of lighting and no significant statistical difference is observed between them; yet their only difference is in applying qualitative factors of ergonomic lighting. Architects of ancient mosques have conformed to the standards offered for quality of ergonomic lighting and in certain instances have even gone beyond those standards, yet negligence of contemporary architects is visible. The corridors of the Sheikh Lotfollah and Imam Mosque are beyond standard limits offered for ergonomic lighting. The mere application of minimum standards for accessing daylight (spiritualism purposes) is not adequate. Unfortunately in the majority of contemporary structures methods that can enhance the spiritualism of mosques have been ignored. The importance of utilizing uniform lighting in design is continually increased while light is not merely illuminated and what is superior is its ability in creating spiritualism within light. Finally it should be mentioned that the science of ergonomics as introduced by western researchers in 2010 had been presenting itself in mentality and designs of ancient Iranian architects and ergonomics could be named as the native knowledge of Iran. 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Ergonomics
  • Quantitative and Qualitative Characteristics of Daylight
  • Ancient Mosques
  • Contemporary Mosques

 Anbari, M. (2002). Importance of Ergonomics in the Design Environment. Saderat Bank Iran Journal, 6(20),

60-69.

 Biner, P.M., Butler D.L., Fischer A.R., & Westergren, A.j. (1989). An Arousal Optimization Model of Lighting

Level Preferences: An interaction of social situation and task demands. Environment and Behavior, 20(1), 3-16.

 Bridger, R.S. (2003). Introduction to Ergonomics. (M. Motamedzadeh, A. Behrouzi, & Y. Rasoulzadeh, Trans.)

Tehran: Institute of Labor and Social Security.

 Dehoff, P. (2012). Lighting Quality And Energy Efficiency Is Not A Contradiction. Light & Engineering, 20: 34-

39.

 Faranda, R. & Fumagalli, K. (2008). Energy Saving Through Solar Lighting Systems. Wseas Transactions on

Power Systems, 3, 475-484.

 Haji Ebrahim Zargar, A. (2007). Mosques Architecture Guide.Tehran: Did Publication.

 Helander, M. (2005). A Guide to Human Factors and Ergonomics. (A. Choobine, Trans.) Shiraz: Raahbord Publication.

 Hopkinson, R.G. (1972). The Lighting of Building. London: Faber and Faber Ltd.

 Houser, K.W., & Tiller, D.K. (2003). Measuring the Subjective Response to Interior Lighting: Paired Comparison

and Semantic Differential Scaling. Lighting Research and Technology, 35(3), 183-198.

 http://www.zumtobel.com/humanergybalance/default.asp?lang=2&cube=1022

 Jalaali, A. (2011). Human Factors Engineering. Eslah va Tarbiyat, 10(108), 44-53.

 Julsen, H., & Tenner, A. (2005). Mechanisms Involved in Enhancing Human Performance by Changing the Lighting

in the Industrial Workplace. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 35, 843-855.

 Knez, I. (?). Effects of Indoor Lighting on Mood and Cognition. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 15: 39-51.

 Knez, I., & Enmaker, I. (1988). Effects of Office Lighting in Work-Related Judgment. Environment and Behavior,

30(4), 580-594.

 Kuller, R., Ballal, S., Laike, T., Mikellides, B., & Tonello, G. (2006). The Impact of Light and Colour on Psychological

Mood: A Cross-Cultural Study of Indoor Work Environments. Ergonomics, 49, 1496-1507.

 Mououdi, M.A. (1996). Engineering Anthropometry. Tehran: Tachar Publication.

 Olguntürk, N., & Demirkan, H. (2009). Ergonomics and Universal Design in Interior Architecture Education.

Metu JFA.

 Parsons, K.C. (2000). Environmental Ergonomics: A Review of Principles, Methods and Models. Applied Ergonomics,

31, 581-594.

 Pheasant, S. (1997). Human Anthropometry Ergonomics and Design. (A. Choobine, & M.A. Mououdi, Trans.)

Tehran: Saadi Publication.

 Raskin, E. (1970). Architecturally Speaking. (M. Mahdavi, Trans.) Tehran: Torfeh Publication.

 Stanton, N., Hedge, A., Brookhuis, K., Salas, E., & Hendrick, H. (2004). Handbook of Human Factors and Ergonomics

Methods.

 Vafaee, A., & Nozhat, B. (2009). In Beam the Spiritual Light; An Analysis of the Mystical Experience of Mystics

in Light Symbol. ADABIAT-E-ERPHANI Journal, 1(1), 160-198.

 Villeneuve, R., & Hignett, D. (2007). Ergonomic Intervention in Hospital Architecture; Meeting Diversity in

Ergonomics.