ترسیم نظام سه رنگه معماری ایرانی در اصفهان عصر صفوی بر مبنای تئوری سه گونای عرفان شهودی هند

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

کارشناس ارشد معماری، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

این نوشتار درباره سیستم رنگی در معماری ایرانی است که از پژوهش "درمانگری مقامات رمزی رنگ در معماری مقدس ایران برای تدوین چهارچوب درمانگری رنگ در معماری" استخراج شده است. در این پژوهش که به صورت کیفی و با روش پدیدارشناسانه انجام شده است از حدود ۲۰۰ نفر مصاحبه انجام شده است. بعد از بازدیدِ بازدیدکنندگان از سه بنای اصفهان دوره صفوی، کاخ باغ چهلستون، مسجد شیخ لطف الله و بقعه هارونیه یک سؤال از آنان پرسیده شده مبنی بر ادراک رنگی که از بنا داشته اند که پاسخ آن ها توسط یک روان درمانگر و یک عصب شناس بررسی شده است. در گام بعد نتایج به دست آمده از مصاحبه ها که یک سیستم سه رنگه آبی، سبز، قرمز را معرفی می کرد، مقایسه شده است با تئوری سه گونا که مربوط می شود به دکترین هندو. سه گونا (ستوه، رجس، تمس) در آیین هندو از لوازم واجب و اولیه تمام سطوح مختلف آفرینش است. نهایتاً نمودار سه رنگه بر مبنای تئوری سه گونای هندو ترسیم شده است. در واقع، هدف از این نوشتار معرفی یک نظام (سیستم) جدید رنگی است که اضافه شود به ۵۹ سیستم رنگی که از دوران عتیق تا دوران مدرن ثبت شده اند. 

عنوان مقاله [English]

The Design of the Tri-Color Order of Iranian Architecture in Safavid Era according to Three Gunas Theory of Intuitive Theosophy of India

نویسندگان [English]

  • Maryam MohammadGholipour
  • Ghodsieh AkbariBaseri
چکیده [English]

In the opinion of the color experts, the theory of colors and light, which are based onthe allegation of color principles and visual values, cannot be used in arts, as it should. As Dr.Habibollah Ayatollahi believes, the color theories in which the primary colors are red, yellow and blue and the secondary colors are resulted from the two by two mixture of these components, are false. He agrees with the opinion of experts who do not pay heed to the basic theories and believes that color should be analyzed by how light reflects from the objects according to the structure of eyes and the phenomena of seeing. He believes in that, because these experts do not mistake the matter of material allegation with color principles with the fact of color lights and their mixture in sight and mind which is the basis of all creations, inventions and innovations of human beings till now. The professionals acknowledge them as two distinguished matters and do not pay attention to the unfounded and old theories except for those about physics’ laws of light or the nature of it, and they consider the belief in three primary colors of red, blue and yellow as a blind dogma. Thus the present article is about the color system of the primary colors in Iranian architecture that has been extracted from the study “Therapeutical aspects of the mystical status of color in Iranian holy architecture”. In this research, which is a qualitative phenomenological
study, the researcher seeks about the characteristics of the color system in the Iranian holly architecture of the Safavid era in Isfahan and has gathered data using the two methods of interview and gathering the opinion of the ancients and decoding them. In this research 162 visitors of three colorful establishments of the Safavid era; Haronieyh Shrine, ChehelSotoon Palace-Garden and Sheikh Lotfollah Mosque in the city of Isfahan were interviewed. These people were exposed to questions in absence of any kind of pre-information about the test in order to avoid side taking and omitting the effects of the attention caused by the researcher in feelings they might get from the buildings. By the first stage, the test was oral and done at the places and at their presence. At the second stage 73 of the visitors who had been exposed to colorful pictures participated in a test about color perception of these three establishments and answered questions. The written questions where set by the researcher (researcher designed test) with regard to the history of the study and the results of the oral test by the care of a healer master and a neurologist. In the end the participants considered the color perception of Sheikh Lotfollah Mosque as blue and a duality of blue and yellow and soil blue and they believed that it is been the cause of serenity and immortality, silence and perception and a personal solitude this building creates. In ChehelSotoon Palace-Garden they supposed that the main color is crimson. Some considered it as a cause for joy and others called it cause of interaction and happiness which it brings. It had caused a feeling of tumult and confusion in some, however they considered the garden and water effective in nulling the confusion. The pilgrims of the Haronieyh Shrine explained the green light coming through the central shrine as a feeling of holiness and respect. They also noted the safety and peace they had felt and considered as the reason of their continuous pilgrimage. In the next stage the results that showed a trinary color system of blue, green and red were compared to the theory of Three Gunas, which is related to Hindu doctrine. In this doctrine Three Gunas (Sattva, Rajas, Tamas) are the primary necessities of all the stages
of creation or it can be said any creature partakes in different levels of these Three Gunas. Sattva shows the brilliant qualities and celestial desires; Rajas is the characteristic of extended horizontal progress and Tamas is dark and heavy and causes neglecting and lethargy and in words of necessity dominates night over day and in material dimension
ensures the rules of gravity. Sattva is white, Rajas is red and Tamas is black and this description is instructive. The Tri-Color has been designed with regard to the Three Gunas of Hindu doctrine. In other words the aim of this article is to introduce a new color system to add to 59 other systems that have been registered in the modern era from the ancient
times.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Color Perception
  • Trinary Color System
  • Three Gunas
  • Iranian architecture

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