عنوان مقاله [English]
The word “urban landscape” as a professional concept was introduced in the late nineteenth century by Frederick Law Olmsted in relation to American cities. The concept and definition of urban landscape have been changed along the paradigm changes in urban design. In recent years, with the stating of environmental concerns, sustainable urban
landscape has been presented as the new urban landscape paradigm. Nowadays, it seems that due to the new technology, the appearance of urban environments will alter. In recent decades the words “Smart” and “Intelligent” became a part of urban vocabulary that refer to smart use of new technology which on one hand, increased the efficiency of urban equipment and utilities and on the other, reduced energy consumption and prevented climate changes. By these changes in communication technologies and electronics, in order to move toward intelligent design, urban facilities are also promoting. Therefore, with the development of smart cities and changes in form and texture of these cities this question remains that how the dimensions and smart landscape norms shifts. The causes of these changes can be investigated in development of technological urban facilities and equipment. Lighting is one of the most important elements of the urban landscape which includes equipment for traffic lights, decorative lights and LED lighting. Urban design in various ways tries to enhance the environmental qualities, particularly in the public territories beautification. Beautification through lighting is one way to adorn the public realm. Lighting technologies and electronics help urban design for its responsiveness in qualitative development of public life. In addition it is useful and plays a significant role in other fields, such as: traffic management, commerce, communications, events and social-cultural practices. For example, traffic lights, commercial boards, illuminates and communications equipment management are special technologies that use lighting technology and electronics to have an impact on urban landscape dimension. Despite widespread lighting technology advances, the traffic lights, signs, commercial advertising and IT equipment, cause visual impairment and intervention widely in public spaces. Urban design in the line of information and communication technologies is hopeful to adjust these visual impairments and enhance the beauty of cities. Based on studies on the development of IT and ICT it seems that some lighting equipment such as: traffic lights, commercial lights can be replaced with other lighting equipment. If city planners can sensitize electronics and IT and ICT experts and researchers in the urban aesthetic fields, especially in an urban landscape, the new technologies for reducing and eliminating
of visual impairment can be achieved to enhance the urban landscape quality. Theoretical foundations of this approach can be investigated in IT developments and innovations in the field of wireless power transmission. Although the idea of wireless power transmission has a long history and much progress, but still it seems like a new subject. According to studies and interviews with electrical, computer and IT experts technologies various issues can be considered in this article including: 1) Vehicular Ad hoc Networks 2) wireless power transmission.
This article tries to define the implications of WiTricity in urban territories and presents the example of this idea around the holy shrine of Imam Reza to create the concept of here and there to achieve vitality, safety and variety. Also with using Vehicular Ad hoc Networks, transfers the traffic elements in the car to reduce the visual pollution. The application of these techniques in urban lighting and traffic equipment can improve the visual quality of public areas, and improve the vitality, safety and variety of communities in general. As a result, the beauty of the city enhances in general with eliminating mechanical elements that distort the urban landscape. This study is an attempt to help technology in the lighting field and minimize visual impairment due to this matter, introducing the smart urban landscape and the creative techniques and methods in this field. One of the important achievements of this article is presenting the good cooperation between electrical, computer and IT experts in the field of urban studies. Finally, based on the relationships between multipurpose professionals –that was mentioned before- and designing some of the main approaches which was presented for designing the smart urban landscape, some of these concepts can be the foundation of further research, including:
• Redefining the concept of urban landscape,
• Establishing the paradigm of smart urban landscape,
• Developing the use of wireless power transmission in urban equipment,
• Implementation of Vehicular Ad hoc Networks in urban transportation and traffic equipment,
• Considering beauty, safety, security, vitality and brightness of urban spaces as the economic advantages of public realms.
-- Behrens, M., Valkanova, N., Schieck, A., & Brumby, D. (2014). Smart Citizen Sentiment Dashboard: A Case
Study Into Media Architectural Interfaces. PerDis’14 International Symposium on Pervasive Displays, ACM, Upcoming.,
-- Behzadfar, M. (2003). World Experience and Future Prospects. Proceedings of the Conference on Vision and
Urban Landscapes, Ministry of Road and Urban Development, Department of Planning and Architecture, Tehran,
Ministry of Roads and Urban Development.
-- Behzadfar, M. (2008). Glossary of Urban Design Concepts. Research Project Conducted at the Center for Architecture
and Urban Studies and Research.
-- Bell, S. (2007). Elements of Visual Design in the Landscape. (M. Ahmadinezhad, Trans.) Tehran: Khak publication.
-- Bender, E. (2014). A World of Wireless Power. Retrieved 20 October, 2014, from https://newsoffice.mit.edu/2014/
-- Castells, M. (1996). The Rise of Network Society (Vol. 1). Oxford: Blackwell.
-- Chaitanya,T., & Kumar, R. (2013). Power Transmission through Wireless Medium. International Journal of Engineering
Trends and Technology, 4(5), 1335.
-- Cullen, G. (2003). The Concise Townscape. (M. Tabibian, Trans.) Tehran: University of Tehran Publication.
-- Elumalai, P., & Murukanantham, P. (2013). Reliable Data Dissemination for Car Safety Applications in VANET(-
Master’s Thesis), Department of Electrical and Information Technology Faculty of Engineering, LTH, Lund University,(
Retrieved from http://www.eit.lth.se/index.php?gpuid=288&L=1&eauid=518).
-- Faezipour, M., Nourani, M., Saeed, A., & Addepalli, S. (2012). Progress and Challenges in Intelligent Vehicle Area
Networks. Communications of the ACM2012, 55(2), 90-100.
-- Golkar, K. (2008). Visual Environment of the City, the Evolution of Decorative Approach to Sustainable Approach.
Environmental Sciences, 4(5), 110.
-- Habib, F. (2006). Landscape Design in the City’s History. Abadi (Journal of Urban and Architectural), 18, 53-48.
-- Hodgkinson, S. (2011). Is Your City Smart Enough? Digitally Enabled Cities and Societies will Enhance Economic,
Social and Environmental. Sustainability in the Urban Century, OVUM report.
-- Khastoo, M., & Saeedi Rezvani, N. (2010). Factors Affecting the Vitality of Urban Spaces, Creating a Lively Urban
Space, Based on the Concept of Mall Walking. Hoviateshahr, 6, 63-74.
-- Kurs, A., Karalis, A., Moffatt, R., Joannopoulos, J.D., Fisher, P., & Soljačić, M. (2007). Wireless Power Transfer
via Strongly Coupled Magnetic Resonance. Science, 317(5834), 83-86.
-- LeBrun, J., Anda, J., Chuah, C., Zhang, M., & Ghosal, D. (2012). Application of Vehicle Ad-hoc Networks in
Traffic Control Systems. Conference: EUROMEDIA’2012, 85-90.
-- Li, V., & Wang, Y. (2009). Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks. Vehicular Technology Magazine, IEEE, 2(2), 12-22.
-- Lip Ahn, B., Yong Jang, C., Leigh, S., Yoo, S., & Jeong, H. (2014). Effect of LED Lighting on the Cooling and
Heating Loads in Office Buildings. Applied Energy, 113, 1484-1489.
-- Lynch, K. (2002). Good City Form. (H. Bahreini, Trans.) Tehran: University of Tehran Publication.
-- Mahmood, A., Ismail, A., Zaman, Z., Fakhar, H., Najam, Z., Hasan, S., & Ahmed, H. (2013). A Comparative Study
of Wireless Power Transmission Techniques. Journal of Basic and Applied Scientific Research, 4(1), 321-326.
-- Mandal, T. (2006). Wireless Transmission of Electricity Development and Possibility. Proceedings of sixth international
symposium Nikola Tesla. Belgrade, Serbia.
-- Mansouri, A. (2004). Introduction to the Understanding of Landscape Architecture. Journal of Bagh Nazar, 2(2),
-- Mohamadi-Zadeh, M. (2012). VANET; Case Automotive Network. Journal of Shabakeh, 131.
-- Pelton, J., & Singh, I. (2013). Futur Cities Designing Beter, Smarter, More Sustainable and Secure Cities. (M.
Abdollah-zadeh, Trans.) Tehran: Cultural Research Bureau publication.
-- Phillips, E.B. (1996). City Lights: Urban-Suburban Life in the Global Society. New York: Oxford University Press.
-- Toffler, A. (1981). The Third Wave. London: Pan.
-- Townsend, A.M. (2000) Life in the Real-time City: Mobil Telephones and Urban Metabolism. Journal of Urban
Technology, 7(2), 85-104.
-- Welsh, B.P., & Farrington, D.C. (2008). Effects of Improved Street Lighting on Crime. Campbell Systematic