عنوان مقاله [English]
Nowadays, bicycle is considered as one of the most inexpensive and effective transportation means in the cities. Cycling is also a fun activity that needs appropriate facilities and environment. Considering suitable conditions for its users can lead to social convictions which can inspire citizens to do this activity more often. This approach helps to achieve a sustainable city. For creating the right infrastructures it is needed to appreciate user context, and his physical and spiritual expectations. Macroeconomic policies should be presented based on these elements. Design of cycling path engenders a special relationship between individuals and their environment. Therefore, encouragement of people to use the bicycle is an essential issue and should be pointed out. The appropriate lighting in cycling path can create a safe, attractive and perfect context for cycling or hiking. Kish Island hosts more than one million and two hundred thousand visitors and local or foreign tourists every year who are eager to perform water and marine sports as well as cycling. No matter how old they are, youngsters and the elderly are interested in cycling. All day long, thousands of travelers and tourists enjoy this fabulous and joyful sport. Maintenance of such a cycling path with 72 km length and its facilities has a lot to do with designing the environmental lighting which encourages people to cycle.
This project is based on User Centered Design (UCD) method to explore the issues about bike rentals. In this study, according to the user’s needs, opinions and behaviors, the User Centered Design Process is planned to increase the effectiveness and success of the product. Regarding the four stages of User Centered Design Process and the Qualitative Function Deployment method, the environmental lighting design of Kish Island cycling path is investigated. Afterwards, thirty users were observed during bicycle rent and some questions related to the problems of the place and their physical and psychological interactions versus its different parts were asked. After studying and analyzing the data collected using Qualitative Function Deployment, design checklist prepared and primary ideation were performed and environmental factors affecting the space design were also reviewed. Lighting is defined as one of the most important items of environmental design parameters and within distinguished ideas, one concept takes superior position. Semiotic feedback of luminous elements and the user experience represents the foundations of design
and their influence on designing process was evaluated. Imaging and recording data have been conducted in various points of the island during the day. These points were selected because of their situation on the cycling path.
From the standpoint of Maguire (2001), there are four basic steps in User Centered Design Cycle:
- Understand and specify the context of use,
- Specify the user and organizational requirements,
- Produce design solutions,
- Evaluate designs against requirements.
Generally, there are two main approaches in the field of urban design elements: one modern approach is to define the urban products as a space force; the other one is a postmodern approach that considers human beings as social driven decisions establish the cultural ties in shaping the urban landscape. The Kish cycling path is around the island and traverses the historic places. Different places of Kish Island have their own impact on the cycling path, for example the natural elements have their special influence on the identity of this path. The results of this study show that people prefer to see the lightings which remind them the identity of Kish Island and its memories. The visual impact of the nature and the iconic elements help us to define the conceptual ideas inspiring by the symbols and signs.
These lightings have not only the functional elements, but also they are implanted in the nature as a memorial of this island. A sustainable lighting illuminates the environment and creates a type of synergy with other furniture and natural elements. Special attention has been given to the sustainability of the energy consumption or the lifecycle of the product. Thirty people composed of 18 men and 12 women were observed and interviewed during this study. Most of them believed that the environmental lighting of the cycling path has many problems and does not have a particular visual appealing to the identity of Kish Island. Poor lighting at night and no visibility of cycling path are the other problems mentioned by women. The users mentioned inadequate lighting form, lack of harmony with the island environment and also lack of appropriate color in this urban element as problems requiring some solutions. The application of Qualitative Function Deployment method illuminates the user’s need within a design framework and the checklist which is much more significant and usable.
-- Ajhdari, A. (1390). The Position of Urban Furniture in Citizen’s Culture Improvement. In Mirdashti (Ed.). Design
studies on Industrial Design papers, 1370-1390, 698-705.
-- Beyer, H., & Holtzblatt, K. (1998). Contextual Design. San Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann.
-- Greenbaum, J., & Kyng, M. (1991). Design at Work: Cooperative Design of Computer Systems. New Jersy: Lawrence
Erlbaum Associates Inc. Hillsdale.
-- Maguire, M. (2001,October). Methods to Support Human-Centred Design, Human-Computer Studies. International
Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 55(4), 587-634.
-- Namayandegi, M.H. (1387). Design Process Based on User. In Mirdashti (Ed.). Design studies on Industrial Design
papers, 1370-1390, 552-530.
-- Nielsen, J. (1993). Usability Engineering. Boston, MA: AP Professional.
-- Newsletter 104 (2012), Retrieved 11 August, 2012, from http://www.camcycle.org.uk/newsletters/104/article17.
html & http://en.licht.de/en.
-- Norman, D.A. (1986). User Centered Design: New Perspectives on Human Computer Interaction. New Jersy: L.
Erlbaum Associates Inc. Hillsdale.
-- Schuler, D., & Namioka, A. (1993). Participatory Design: Principles and Practices. New Jersy: Lawrence Erlbaum
Associates Inc. Hillsdale and chapter 11 In Helander’s Handbook of HCI, Elsevier 1997.
-- Taylor, B. (1990). The HUFIT Planning, Analysis and Specification Toolset, Human-Computer Interaction INTERACT'
90 Conference Proceedings. 27-31 August, Amsterdam: North-Holland: (Diaper D., Cockton G., Gilmore
D. and Shackel B., eds)., 371-376.
-- www.cyclemanual.ie (11.08.2014).