اهمیت شناخت پیشینه سایت در رویکرد حفاظت جامع، نمونه موردی: سایت پیرامون مسجد کبود تبریز

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش آموخته کارشناسی ارشد معماری، گروه هنر و معماری، واحد تبریز، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تبریز، ایران.

2 استادیار معماری، دانشکده معماری، پردیس هنرهای زیبا، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

حفاظت جامع یکی از رویکردهایی است که در پی اعتبار یافتن پارادایم پایداری و متأثر از تفکرات ملهم از این پارادایم، در مغرب زمین ظهور پیدا کرده است. این رویکرد پس از چندین دهه تجربیات نوین در زمینه حفاظت از بافت های با ارزش شهری، به عنوان راهکاری مطلوب مورد توجه متخصصان قرار گرفت؛ زیرا این قابلیت را داشت که ضمن توجه به ارزش های مادی و معنایی محیط های تاریخی، متوجه به تأمین نیازهای شهر و شهروندان نیز باشد. در این رویکرد، کسب شناخت از پیشینه مکان، شرط لازم برای یک اقدام معرفت پایه و ثمربخش می باشد. در این مقاله برای تبیین اهمیت این امر و همچنین تذکر تبعات غفلت از آن، نتایج یک مطالعه که بررسی فرجام محوطه تاریخی مسجد کبود تبریز در دهه هفتاد شمسی می باشد، ارائه شده است. در آن زمان مداخلات ناسنجیده و شتاب زده در این محوطه تبعات جبران ناپذیری را بر هویت آن وارد نمود و منجر به فقدان همیشگی بخشی از ساختار تاریخی محوطه و در نتیجه تاریخ شهر شد. با درک آنچه گفته شد، پژوهش حاضر متوجه این پرسش است که غفلت از بررسی های علمی برای حصول شناخت نافذ از پیشینه مکان، منجر به چه تبعاتی برای محوطه پیرامون مسجد کبود شده است؟ این پژوهش به روش توصیفی- تحلیلی انجام یافته است. از نتایج پژوهش، تبیین این موضوع است که سایت مورد مطالعه که قدمتی برابر با عصرآهن دارد و در طول تاریخ، بارها استقرار جوامع انسانی در آن برقرار بوده است؛ هویت و منزلتی دارد که تاکنون متناسب با شأن آن رفتار نشده است. همچنین تصمیمات متفرق حوزه های مختلف مدیریت شهری، برای سرنوشت این محوطه زیان بار بوده است. اگر در مداخلات دهه هفتاد شمسی مدیران و کارشناسان تصمی مگیرنده برای این محوطه، متوجه رسالت و مسئولیت اجتماعی خود می بودند و الزام به برخورد عالمانه و معمارانه با چنین محیط ارزشمندی را می داشتند؛ پیش از هر عملی، نسبت به اتخاذ یک راهبرد طراحی متناسب با شأن محیط اقدام می نمودند و از بروز بحران های بعدی جلوگیری به عمل می آمد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Recognition of Site Precedent from the Perspective of Integrated Conservation, Case Study: Tabriz Blue Mosque Surrounding Site

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mahnaz Peyrovi 1
  • Mohammadbagher Kabirsaber 2
1 M.A. in Architecture, Department of Art and Architecture, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran.
2 Assistant Professor of Architecture, Faculty of Fine Arts Campus, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

During the recent years and following several decades of modern experiences in valuable urban texture conservation, Integrated Conservation approach has been considered as a more favorable solution by urban restoration experts. This viewpoint which covers extensive material and spiritual dimensions takes into account the commitment to supply current needs of the city and citizens along with the commitment to support the historical values. But having full knowledge of historical and site structure evolutions is one of the requirements for adopting this approach. The purpose of having such knowledge is to provide a background for a knowledge-based action in line with promoting the quality of the proposed plans; an issue that has unfortunately gained little attention in most of the contemporary interventions in the historical textures of Iranian cities. Historical texture of Iranian ancient cities is one of the main fields affected by the thoughtless and tactless developments. The measures that have been taken in these valuable regions, have often affected the historical and even functional identity of them. An obvious example of this claim is the inadvertent interventions in Tabriz Blue Mosque historical site, resulted in irreparable consequences for the historical prestige of the Two decades ago, i.e. in the early 70s (Hijri Shamsi), simultaneous to civil actions after war, the city governors with the consultation, cooperation and investment of a cultural institute in Tehran tried to destruct interwoven texture around the Blue Mosque. The purpose of this group in destructing the historical structures, was to bare, or in other words, clarify the physical appearance of the
Blue Mosque in urban landscape; in addition, another goal was designing and constructing trading complexes around it in order to return the capital and interest. This project that had a high process speed at first and it was expected to end soon, suddenly faced with a crisis and got stop for several years. The situation was another manifestation of “development and conflict” discussion in the third world societies. Although project managers insisted on work continuation and completion, resistance and opposition of public opinions especially the cultural sympathetic strata of the city became a barrier to it. Generally, it should be mentioned that although this non-expertise actions did not merely focus on destruction of architectural buildings and heritage around the Blue Mosque, but it totally destructed a
wide section of subsurface works hidden in lower layers. The present research has an environmental consideration and reflection while “Integrated Conservation” approach has become the basis of discussion in this. By understanding the mentioned issues we try to find an answer to the question: what is the role of layer study analysis in remaining traces from the excavation at surrounding site of Tabriz Blue Mosque in promoting the quality of the proposed plans for this site. This study has used a descriptive-analytical method of research and the findings indicate that more attentions should be paid by the programmers to this site which has a considerable antiquity dating back to Iron Age as a place in which human societies were settled during several millennia. The findings of this study further reveal that haphazard decisions in different districts of urban designing management have been harmful and evil for the fate of this site. If Integrated Conservation approach had been adopted to save and organize it from the beginning, the aforesaid site could now be an active and attractive cultural pole while preserving its true dignity. Now, for saving this historical site, it is necessary to provide a reasonable and long-lasting protection opportunity, from the viewpoint of Integrated Conservation approach.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Integrated Conservation
  • Historical Precedent
  • Layer Study
  • Blue Mosque

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