اصول سازماندهی مؤثر بر ایجاد تصاویر ذهنی بینندگان در باغ شاهزاده ماهان

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 مربی دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه شهید باهنر کرمان (مجتمع آموزش عالی زرند)، کرمان، ایران.

2 دانشجوی دکتری معماری، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد تهران مرکزی، تهران، ایران.

3 استادیار معماری، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه علم صنعت ایران، تهران، ایران .

چکیده

هر میزان که توافقات ذهنی میان تجرب هکنندگان از فضای معماری بیشتر باشد، تعبیر مشترک از معماری و مطلوبیت معماری در میان آن گروه امکان پذیرتر است. برای کشف توافقات ذهنی می توان از روانشناسی محیط بهره جست. در حیطه روانشناسی محیط و به طور خاص تصویر ذهنی از محیط، با محور قرار دادن معیارهای کالبدی سازنده فضاهای خوانا و خاطره ساز در مقیاس شهر، پژوهش های بسیاری انجام شده است. در مقابل پژوهش های اندکی وجود دارد که به اهمیت این معیارها در مقیاس جز (بنا) پرداخته باشند. هدف این مقاله شناسایی و مقایسه عوامل سازنده تصاویر ذهنی افراد از باغ شاهزاده ماهان می باشد. به همین منظور به تدوین تصاویر ذهنی جامعه آماری از نمونه موردی پرداخته و سپس با تحلیل داد هها به شیوه دلفی اصول سازماندهی مؤثر فضا برای ماندن تصویر ذهنی در خاطره افراد مشخص شده است. در این مقاله سعی می شود به دو پرسش اساسی پاسخ داده شود. الف: تصویر ذهنی چیست؟ ب: اصول سازماندهی فضا بنای باغ شاهزاده که مؤثر بر ایجاد تصاویر ذهنی مشترک بینندگان است، کدامند؟ روش تحقیق این مقاله کیفی و کمی می باشد و جمع آوری اطلاعات به صورت کتابخانه ای و میدانی است. جمعیت آماری این مقاله، 30 نفر از دانشجویان دختر ترم اول معماری می باشد که از آن ها خواسته شد تصاویر ذهنی شان را از باغ شاهزاده ترسیم کنند. سپس طبق روش دلفی به تحلیل تصاویر پرداخته شد. در نهایت نتایج حاصل تحلیل شد. این نتایج نشان دهنده این است که، اصول سازماندهی فضایی مؤثر بر تصویر ذهنی افراد در باغ شاهزاده به ترتیب اولویت و میزان تأثیرگذاری عبارتند از: 1-توجه به تقارن، ریتم و تکرار موجود در بنا 2- هندسه کلی فضا و جانمایی ها 3- توجه به محور غالب باغ و سایر اصول تأثیر گذار بر تصاویر ذهنی از این بنا در رده های بعدی اهمیت قرار می گیرند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effective Organizing Principles on Mental Images of Spectator in Shahzade Garden (Kerman)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Fatemeh Sheikh Asadi 1
  • Marzieh Kazemzadeh 2
  • Hashem Hashem Nejad 3
1 Lecturer in Faculty of Art and Architecture, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman (Higher Education Complex of Zarand), Kerman, Iran.
2 Ph.D. Candidate of Architecture, Faculty of Art and Architecture, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
3 Assistant Professor of Architecture, School of Architecture and Environmental Design, Iran University of Science & Technology, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

In modern architecture there is a sort of visual disorder. It lacks identity. The need is highly felt to turn to eclecticism to establish appropriate literature and designing principles. To achieve it, a sort of consensus among users are needed because what architects create is a potential environment for human behavior which can influence them. The users’ role is so great and their attributes can be the establishment of the architecture principles. It can be said that these patterns and principles are the factors that contribute to identify and distinguish the environment and turn it into a specific locality and neighborhood and form its place identity. Constituent elements and their combinations have the capability to associate meaning, create mental image, and form sense of place and identity. On the other hand, these features can be deemphasized or excluded. Planner as a person who deals with city or place anatomy, first directs his attention to external factors that influence on observer and then forms it in his/her mind. It is evident that everyone perceives the images that the planner forms in the environment. However, it seems that there is a great deal of similarities between perceptions of the same groups. These similar and common images which result from a great number of individuals’ agreement on the importance of a specific image are what attract a planner’s attention since the environment created by a planer is used by many. In fact, space users agree on what elements and patters are desirable and undesirable, what elements are bold in their collective memories and what are not be used to trace desirable behavioral and anatomical patterns. Environmental Psychology can be used to answer such questions. Many studies in Environmental Psychology have been done on issues like individuals’ cognitive – mental images of environment by focusing on constituent anatomical criteria of memorable, readable and understandable spaces in a holistic view of city. Lynch’s study can be named as a remarkable example in which he collected individuals’ mental images and by focusing on individuals’
plans, he attempted to understand their mentality of place and select the elements that lead to legibility and durability. In fact, in the area of environmental psychology and in particular mental image of the environment, by focusing on physical criteria of legible and memory maker spaces on an urban scale, many studies have been done, butthere are few studies on the importance of the criteria in scale of a building. Since the aim of this study is identification and comparison of effective elements in making the mental image of Shahzade gardeg in Kerman, the mental images of Statistical Society were gathered and analyzed by Delphi method. As a result, the effective organizing principles on mental images of visitors were recognized. The findings are analyzed and compared accordingly. Finally, we tried to develop the anatomical criteria which influence on mental images. This paper tried to answer two questions:
1) What is the mental image? 
2) What are the organizing principles that effect on common mental images of visitors?
This research used qualitative and quantitative methods and data was collected in a library and survival ways. Statistical population of this study was 30 female students of architecture that are in the first semester. They were asked to draw their mental images of Shahzade Garden. Then the Delphi method was used to image analysis. Finally, the results were analyzed. These results indicate some effective organizing principles on mental images of visitirsin the Shahzadeh Garden are: 1) the symmetry, rhythm and repetition in the building; 2) overall geometry of space and layout; 3) relationship between the main building, entrance pavilion and the linear path between them; 4) the difference in level existing in garden and the relationship between ponds and also water movement during its; 5) Some details such as stairs, rails and divisions doors and windows And other effective principles on mental images of this building are in next categories of importance. The result of this paper is just related to a case study of linear organization buildings. These results help to develop more appropriate and efficient design criteria as a link between architectural design and environmental psychology.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Mental map
  • Environmental Perception
  • Traditional Architecture
  • Cognitive Map

Ching, F. (1989). Architecture form, Space, & Order. (Z. Gharagozloo, Trans.), Tehran: Tehran University Publication.

Dondis, Donis A. (2007). A Primer of Visual Literacy (M. Sepehr, Trans.). Tehran: Soroosh Publication. 

Downs, R. & Stea, D. (1973). Image and Environment: Cognitive Mapping and Spatial Behavior, Edward Arnold. 

Falamaki, M.M. (2002). Theoretical Origins and Tendencies of Architecture, Faza Publication.

Grutter, J. (2004). Asthetik der Architektur. Tehran: Shahid Beheshti University Publication.

Gifford, R. (1999). Environmental Perception & Cognition, Tehran: Architecture & Culture, 2,3.

Gibson, J. (1979). An Ecological Approach to Visual Perception, Boston: Houghton Miffin.

Gifford, R. (1987). Environmental Psychology; Principles and Practice, University of Victoria.

Ittelson, W.H. (1973). Visual Space Perception, New York: Springer.

Kitchin, RM. (1994). Cognitive Maps: What Are They and Why Study Them?. Journal of Environmental Psychology. 14 (1), 1–19

Knight, P. (2002). Conspiracy Nation: the Politics of Paranoia in Postwar America, New York and London: New York University Press. 

Lynch, K. (1960). The Image of City. Cambridge, Mass, MIT Press.

Ludwig, L. & Starr, S. (2005). Library as Place: Results of a Delphi Study. Journal of the Medical Library Association, 93(3), 315-327

Lang, J.T. (1938). Creating Architectural Theory: the Role of the Behavioral Sciences in Environmental Design, (A. Einifar, Trans.). Tehran: Tehran University Publication.

Masoodi, A. (2009). Recognition Persian Garden, Shazde Garden, Tehran: Faza Publication.

MCAndrew, F.T‭.(1953). Environmental Psychology, (G. Mahmoodi, Trans.). Tehran: Zarbaf Publication.‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬

Moore, G. T. (1970). Emerging Methods in Environmental Design and Planning, Cambridge, Mass, MIT Press.

Neisser, U. (1977). Cognition and Reality, San Francisco: Freeman.

Pakzad, J. & Bozorg, H. (2012). An Introduction to Environmental Psychology for Designer, Armanshahr Publication.

Porteous, J. D. (1977). Design with People, New York: Basic Books

Robert J. S. (2008). Cognitive Psychology, (K. Kharazi & E. Hejazi, Trans.), Tehran: Roshd Publication.

Sternberg, R. J. (1979). The Nature of Mental Abilities. American Psychologist, 34, 214-230.

Tolman E.C. (1948). Cognitive Maps in Rats and Men, Psychological Review, 55 (4), 189–2081.

Tribe, M. (1974). Stadtgestaltung Theoric Und Praxis, Bertelsmann.