چگونگی شکل گیری حس مکان در کودکان

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار معماری، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه هنر، تهران، ایران .

2 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد معماری داخلی، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه هنر، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

حس مکان، عاملی است که در شک لگیری هویت انسان تأثیر به سزایی دارد. بخش مهمی از هویت هر فرد در دوران کودکی و با توجه به تصویر های ذهنی و خاطرات جمعی و مکانی وی پایه ریزی می شود؛ به گونه ای که زمینه ساز بسیاری از روحیات و ویژگی های فردی و اجتماعی همچون کاهش اضطراب، دستیابی به عزت نفس و روحیه جمعی و تعاملی و غیره در افراد جامعه خواهد بود. بنابراین بررسی مفهوم حس مکان و عوامل شک لدهنده آن به ویژه در دوران کودکی، امری ضروری است که در این پژوهش به آن پرداخته خواهد شد. این مقاله به روش تحلیلی– توصیفی و برپایه مرور منابع کتابخانه ای در زمینه روانشناسی محیط و روانشناسی کودکان نگارش شده است. از این رو ابتدا به معرفی مکان، حس مکان و عوامل شک لدهنده آن به طور کلی پرداخته شده و سپس ضرورت ایجاد این احساس تعلق به مکان، در کودکان مورد مطالعه قرار م یگیرد. در ادامه با بیان ویژگی های کودکان از درک مفهوم دلبستگی در سنین مختلف، به جایگاه دلبستگی به مکان در شکل گیری هویت آن ها اشاره خواهد شد. در نهایت با معرفی مکان های مورد علاقه کودکان و ویژگی های شکل دهنده آن، به ارائه راهکارهای عملی و الگویی جهت ایجاد حس مکان در کودک م یپردازد. نتایج حاصل از بررسی ها و تطابق ها، حاکی از تأثیر به سزای عوامل فعالیتی و تعاملی در غالب بازی- مشارکت، برای دخل و تصرف در مکان توسط کودک و مشارکت او در طراحی فضاها و ایجاد قلمروهای شخصی می باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Sense of a Place Formation in Children

نویسندگان [English]

  • Alireza Mostaghni 1
  • Shahrzad Etemadi 2
1 Assistant Professor of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, University of Art, Tehran, Iran. علیرضا مستغنی
2 M.A. Student of Interior Architecture, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, University of Art, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Sense of place, is a factor that has a great impact on shaping human identity. An important part of individual`s identity in the society is established in childhood and is based on collective and spatial memories as well as subjective images which underlies many social and personal characteristics such as, anxiety reduction, self-esteem achievement and collective and interactive morale. As a result, sense of place concept and the factors contribute to creation of the sense, particularly in childhood years, are important subjects which will be discussed in this paper. One of the values of place attachment that are widely expressed is that it helps children to obtain their personal identity. In addition, attachment to a place provides an evolutionary advantage for children to achieve social and cognitive outcomes emotional aspects. The huge amount of children place attachment takes place through socio-cultural factors and in the context of family and community interaction. Also, according to today’s lifestyle and occupation parents, children usually spend hours of a day in communal spaces such as kindergartens and educational centers. Therefore, this study tries to provide practical solutions to design spaces such as designing cumulative and childish place which provide possibility of intervention with space for children. This article through reviewing literatures and by analytical -descriptive method has analyzed presented data and finally gave guidelines. The main purpose of this research is introducing factors that affect in shaping children’s sense of place. Then, by expressing the features of children in understanding the concepts of friendship at different ages,
position of attachment to the place in formatting the identity will be discussed. Finally, by introducing the characteristics of places interesting for children, practical solutions to create a sense of place in children has been provided. Children show their dependence to a place when they are happy in that place and feel remorse or discomfort when leave it. So that place is not just for the satisfaction of physical needs, but also for its inherent qualities. At an earlier age, children have positive and negative emotions about their environment which ultimately lead to the formation of strong positive or negative images in their minds. As the activity is a major factor of growing and learning in children, while that is associated with the space and environment, it can provide complete development for children; therefore place should consist of enough support for the child’s optimum growth. One of the most important activities that have a great impact on the children’s friendship is game. Children like exploration to explore their surrounding world, so their environment should stimulate curiosity. According to the proposed solution, place and children during an interactive relationship with each other, share many factors to create place attachment. On the other hand, through the individual, social, cultural factors for children and action-interaction and physical factors for a place, sense of place can be provided. This process through the time and with the formation of memories and experiences in place increases satisfaction of child’s environment. The degree of satisfaction with the development of feelings of loyalty, commitment and sharing of their interests and activities can be detected in the environment and with peers groups which finally gives   the children a sense of place. Also, by promoting the participation of children in care and maintenance of the place, they will be allowed to freely create and express their control of territory and special places. So they feel more responsibility for their own space, and even such conditions can provide children with playing a main role in designing of their place, such as creating decoration and furniture. In this case, they are not only as a consumer of space, but also a Resident. Through the participation of children it is created, in a game format to change their space like partnership in growing of plants, painting on the walls, and cooperation in desired change of space, sense of a place can be created. The purpose of the play-participation is not only entertainment, but also the meaningful participation of children in the form of the game is concerned. The results of the studies and correspondences, suggest a tremendous impact of active and interactive factors in form of play-partnership, on manipulating the place by child himself and his contributions for designing and creating spaces and individual territories.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Sense of Place
  • Fixation
  • Attachment
  • Identity
  • partnership

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