در جستجوی تصویر کالبدی مسجد مطلوب در پنداشت های ذهنی جامعه، نمونه موردی: شهر بجنورد، خراسان شمالی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 مربی، عضو هیأت علمی گروه معماری، دانشکده هنر، دانشگاه بجنورد، بجنورد، ایران.

2 مربی، عضو هیأت علمی گروه معماری، دانشکده هنر، دانشگاه بجنورد، بجنورد، ایران .

چکیده

مذهب، اساسی ترین نقش را در حیات فردی و اجتماعی انسان در تمام دوران های پیش از مدرن )معاصر( داشته است. از این رو بناهای مذهبی تمدن ها، همواره مهم ترین و باارزش ترین آثار معماری هر تمدن و فرهنگی به شمار می رود. در دوره معاصر، معماری مسجد نیز همچون سایر بناها، دچار دگرگونی شده است. اهمیت مسجد و تحولات آن در دوره
معاصر، دغدغه بسیاری از پژوهشگران معماری بوده است. موضوع پژوهش هایی که تاکنون در این باره انجام شده است، بیشتر تبیین مبانی نظری و مفاهیم، و یا توصیف کالبدی بناهای مذهبی بوده است و کمتر پژوهشی به ذهنیت مردم از کالبد مسجد پرداخته است. در پژوهش حاضر، پنداشت های ذهنی مردم بجنورد درباره تصویر مطلوب مسجد امروزی مورد بررسی قرار گرفته است. این پژوهش، توصیفی و از نوع پیمایشی بوده و ابزار گردآوری داده ها، پرسشنامه ای 36 گویه ای است. جامعه آماری، شامل کلیه افراد ساکن در شهر بجنورد است. حجم نمونه آماری 311 نفر است. نتایج پژوهش نشان داد که بیشتر پرسش شوندگان، مسجد مطلوب را بزرگ و باشکوه، با گنبد و مناره های متوسط یا بزرگ، دارای خوانایی در مقیاس محله ای و با فاصله حداکثر 10 دقیقه پیاده روی تا محل کار یا زندگی دانسته اند. صحن، گنبد و مناره، مهم ترین عناصر کالبدی مسجد برشمرده شده اند. بیشتر افراد، شبستان مطلوب را دارای ارتفاع متوسط یا بلند، تعداد ستون های کم، پنجره های با تعداد و بزرگی در حدّ معمول، و سقف گنبدی شکل توصیف کردند. همچنین از نظر پرسش شوندگان، میزان موفقیت مساجد معاصر بجنورد، نسبتاً پایین بود. در نظرات مردم نسبت به میزان موفقیت معماری مساجد معاصر بجنورد، در میان دو گروه مردان و زنان، همچنین در میان گروه رشته های تحصیلی و سنی مختلف، تفاوت معناداری مشاهده نشد. نظر مردم در مورد میزان موفقیت معماری مساجد معاصر بجنورد، با میزان تحصیلات آن ها و با شکل مطلوب گنبد، ارتباط معناداری داشت. نتایج این پژوهش می تواند به عنوان یکی از عوامل مؤثر در طراحی مساجد، مورد استفاده معماران قرار گیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigating Physical Image of an Ideal Mosque in the Subjective Assumptions of Society, Case Study: Bojnord City, North Khorasan Province

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Mahvash 1
  • Reza Moradpour 2
1 Lecturer of Architecture, Faculty of Art, University of Bojnord, Bojnord, Iran.
2 Lecturer of Architecture, Faculty of Art, University of Bojnord, Bojnord, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Religion has played the most important role in individual and social life of human beings in all of pre-modern (contemporary) periods. Religious buildings always were known as the most important and valuable works of architecture in every civilization. During the modern era, architecture of mosques just like other buildings got great changes. The importance of the mosque and its transformation in the contemporary architecture, has become the concern of many architecture researchers. The subject of researches in this field, have been further explanation of the theoretical and conceptual issues, or physical descriptions of religious buildings rather than the mentality and subjective image of the people about the form of mosques. In the present study, subjective assumptions of the Bojnord people about favorable image of today’s mosque is examined. The questions of this study were as follows: 1) is there any significant difference between the opinions of different groups of people on ideal mosque? 2) Whether the existence and shape of the dome in a mosque, from public viewpoint, effect on the success of mosque? 3) How far the architecture of Bojnord contemporary mosques is successful and attractive, from the city peoples’ viewpoint? The hypotheses based on the questions, have shaped as follows:
1) The public opinion on “the success rate of the Bojnord contemporary mosques” is significantly different in: a) different sex groups; b) different academic fields and different levels of education; c) different age groups. 2) People opinions about “the success rate of the mosques” is significantly related to their opinions about “the ideal shape of the dome”. This study was a descriptive survey and the tool in data gathering. To ensure the validity of the questionnaire, the ideas and comments of experts and professors have been served. The questionnaire reliability was calculated using Cronbach’s alpha. Review, analysis and statistical inference of the replies, are done using SPSS17 software. The population includes all people living in Bojnord. The sample size was estimated 370, according to Morgan and Cochran formulas, 95% confidence level and margin of error of 5%. 311 questionnaires returned after distribution. The questionnaires has been distributed, as much as possible, in public places (such as markets, mosques, universities, offices, etc.) that includes all age groups, educational and ethnic as well as different points in the city; to ensure uniform distribution of the sample. The research results showed that: 1) most of respondents have a neighborhood scale subjective image, and a great mosque in an urban scale has been considered relatively less. The majority of respondents believe that there is a optimal distance between the mosque and the places of work and live, a maximum of 10 minutes’ walk. 2) Most people believe that ideal mosque would be “great and glorious” and the entrance of mosque had to be “taller than the adjacent buildings”; the prayer hall of mosque should have a height of “medium” or “high” and the ceiling should be “domed”. Most people, believe that a prayer hall with a “less columns (and by far)” is  ideal, but the optimal diameter of the pillars of the prayer hall, according to the responses, cannot lead to a result. Also most of respondents believe that “usual and average” number and size of windows in the main prayer hall is better. 3) About the height of the dome, from the viewpoint of most respondents, a dome with a height of “medium” or “high” is ideal. Also, nearly half of respondents believe that the dome of mosques should still be built “like traditional domes”. Other respondents also believe that the domes had to be “in imitation of the traditional domes, but different”. Also most of respondents believe that “high” or “medium” minaret are ideal for a mosque. 4) “Courtyard (Sahn)”, “Dome” and “Minaret” have the most important elements of mosque, and “Garden”, “Pulpit” and “fountain” has been considered as the least important. More respondents believe that the success rate of Bojnord contemporary mosques were average, low, or very low. 5) Regarding to their opinions about “the success rate of contemporary mosques of Bojnord”, no significant difference was seen among two “sex groups”, (men and women), among “different academic disciplines groups” and among the “different age groups”. Also a significant weak relationship was seen between the opinions about “success rate of mosques” and “education level”. A significant relationship was seen between the opinions about “success rate of mosques” and the opinions about “ideal form of dome”.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Mosque Architecture
  • Contemporary Mosque
  • Desired Mosque
  • Subjective Public Image
  • Bojnourd City

Behzadfar, M. (1999). Architecture of Mosque and Urban Facade, Proceeding of the 1st Conference on Mosque Architecture, (Vol.2, pp. 425-438), Tehran: Art University.

Bemanian, M. & Pourja’far, M. & Ahmadi, F. & Sadeghi, A. (2010). Review of Spiritual Identity and Sacred Suppositions in the Architecture of Shi’ite Mosques. Shi’ite Studies. 30 (8), 37-70.

Bolkhari Ghahi, H. (2005). Spiritual Foundations of Islamic Art and Architecture (Second Part: Alchemy of Imagination). Tehran: Sure-ye- Mehr.

Falahat, M. (2005). Sense of Place in the Physical Design of Mosques. HONAR-HA-YE-ZIBA, 22 (5), 35-42. 

Grabar, O. (2000). The Formation of Islamic Art. (M. Vahdati Daneshmand, Trans.). Tehran: Institute for Humanities and Cultural Studies.

Hamidi, M. (1997). The Structure of Tehran City. (vol.1). Engineering and Technical Consulting Organization of Tehran. 

Hillenbrand, R. (1998).‎ Islamic Architecture: Form, Function, and Meaning (I. E’tesam, Trans.). Tehran: Processing and Urban Planning Co.

Hisham, M. (2005). Traditional Islamic Principles of Built Environment (A. Meshkini & K. Habibi, Trans.). Tehran: Center for the Study and Research in Urban Planning and Architecture.

Kiani, M.Y. (2000). Iranian Architecture of the Islamic Period. Tehran: SAMT.

Mohammadian Mansour, S. (2007). Hierarchy of Confidentiality in Iranian Mosques. HONAR-HA-YE-ZIBA. 29, 59-86.

Motadayyen, H. (2007). Domed Chahartaghi, the Glory of Iranian Mosques Architecture. HONAR-HA-YE-ZIBA. 31, 46-39.

Naghsh-e-Jahan-Pars Consulting Engineers (2005). Review of Masterplan of Bojnord. Bojnord: North Khorasan Organization of Road & Urban Development.

Pirnia, M.K. (1991). Dome in the Iranian Architecture, (Bozorgmehri et al., Eds.). Asar, 20, 5-139.

Pirnia, M.K. (1995). Introduction to Islamic Architecture. (GH. Me’marian, Ed.). Tehran: University of Science & Technology.

Pope, A.O. (1986). Persian Architecture: The Triumph of Form and Color. (K. Afsar, Trans.). Tehran: Farhangsara (Yasavoli).

Ra’isi Nafchi, M. & Azad, M. (2007). Dome in Iranian Architecture (The Impact of Structure on Formation of Architectural Work). Proceeding of the 1st Conference on Structure and Architecture, Tehran: University of Tehran, College of Fine Arts.

Rezazade, R. (2004). The Role of Architecture in Revealing Meaning and Concepts. Mosque Architecture: Traditional or Innovative?. HONAR-HA-YE-ZIBA. 18, 37-48.

Sa’idian, A., Qoli, M., Zamani, E. & Ansari, M. (2011). Recognition of the Formation of Urchin Dome (With an Emphasis on Geometric and Architecture Structure). Journal of Studies on Iranian-Islamic City. 5, 47-66.

Seyyedizadeh, E. & Abbasian, A.A. (1993). Bojnord, North Pathway of Khorasan (Historical and Religious Monuments of Bojnord County). Bojnord: Ardashir Publication.

Shoaibi, A; Sirus Sabri, R. & Sha’bani, N. (2001). Mosque as an Urban Element. Proceeding of the 2nd Conference on Mosque Architecture, (Vol.2, pp. 483-497), Tehran: Art University.

Shokrollahi, L. (2011). Introduction to Symbolic Thinking, Study of the Symbolic Aspects of Dome in Iran Architecture. Journal of Architectural Thinking. 25, 41-47.

Soltanzadeh, H. (1983). The Process of Formation of City and Religious Centers in Iran. Tehran: Aagaah.

Statistical Center of Iran (2012), 2011 Result of National Population and Housing Census. Available at: <http://www.amar.org.ir/Default.aspx?tabid=1160>. [Access Date: 11/12/2013].

Zargar, A. (2007). Guide for Mosque Architecture. (H. Nadimi. & R. Mokhtarshahi, Eds.). Tehran: Deed.

Zarkesh, A. (2001). Compatibility of Space and Architecture in Iranian Mosques Architecture in the Islamic Period (Practical Experience and Scientific Resource for Future). Proceeding of the 2nd Conference on Mosque Architecture, (Vol.2, pp. 425-438), Tehran: Art University.