رویکردی تحلیلی بر تأثیر اندیشه ها در معماری و شهرسازی (تحلیل تطبیقی اندیشه های فلسفی و حکمی)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد طراحی شهری، دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران.

2 استادیار گروه معماری، دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران.

3 دانشجوی دکتری شهرسازی، دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران .

چکیده

موضوع این مقاله بررسی تأثیر اندیشه ها بر شکل گیری آثار معماری و شهرسازی است. اندیشه های حکمی وفلسفی تأثیر بنیادینی در تاریخ معماری شهرسازی دنیا داشته اند. به عبارتی، هنر و معماری هر ملتی در طول تاریخ، نمود بیرونی و مادی شده اندیشه های مختلف، به عنوان تبلوردهنده درونمایه های فکری و فرهنگی مردمان آن سرزمین بوده است. به
عبارتی هنر و معماری دارای حقیقت تاریخی ای است که در هر دوره به اقتضای الگوواره های غالب بر اذهان، افهام و قلوب به نحوی ظهوردارد. شکل گیری فضاهای کالبدی و آثار هنری در هر شرایطی متأثر از اندیشه های فلسفی و حکمی بوده است. در تحلیل اندیشمندان به طور عام و اندیشمندان شرقی به طور خاص تمایز مشخصی بین این اندیشه ها و تأثیرات آن ها به چشم نمی خورد. این مقاله با هدف بررسی دقیق تر مفاهیم فلسفه و حکمت و بیان ویژگی های اندیشه های نشأت گرفته از مفاهیم و مبانی فلسفی و حکمی سعی در تبیین ویژگی های هنر، هنرمند و آثار هنری برخوردار از این اندیشه ها دارد. روش تحقیق مقاله، بررسی اسنادی و تحلیل های توصیفی- تفسیری متون و آثار معماری مختلف است، که با بهره گیری از استدلال منطقی و تحلیل های کیفی بررسی شده اند. نتایج این تحقیق نشان دهنده آن است که اندیشه های فلسفی و حکمی تأثیرات بنیادینی بر شکل گیری آثار مختلف معماری گذاشته است. نوع تأثیرگذاری و خاستگاه این دو نوع اندیشه دارای تفاوت های جوهری بوده و آثار هنری و معماری غرب و شرق به ترتیب بیشتر متأثر از اندیشه های فلسفی و اندیشه های حکمی می باشند. حکمت همان فلسفه غربی نیست، بلکه دارای تفاوت های جوهری و اساسی با آن بوده و به تبع آن نیز اندیشه های فلسفی و حکمی دارای تفاوت های ماهوی می باشند. معماری شرقی به خصوص معماری ایرانی بیشتر متأثر از اندیشه های حکمی الهی است و مبتنی بر تجربه استحسانی و شهود. هر نوع شناخت از آن، با شناخت عوالم آن جهانی و این جهانی آفریننده آن قابل درک و استنباط خواهد بود. در حالی که هنر و معماری غرب عمدتاً، تبلور اندیشه های فلسفی و تجربه و تعقل است.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

An Analytical Approach toward the Effects of Thoughts in Architecture and Urban Design (Comparative Analysis of Philosophical and Wisdom Thoughts)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Reza Pourjafar 1
  • Mansour Yeganeh 2
  • Maryam Farahani 3
1 Professor of Urban Design, Faculty of Art and Architecture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.
2 Assistant Professor of Architecture, Faculty of Art and Architecture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.
3 Ph.D. Candidate in Urban Design, Faculty of Art and Architecture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

The subject of this paper is comparative analysis of wisdom and philosophical thoughts and their effects on architecture and urban design. Wisdom and philosophical thoughts had great impacts on well-known buildings throughout the history. Artistic and architectural products are the appearance and materialized of various philosophical and wisdom thoughts, as an illustration of cultural and belief properties of nations in their history. In other words, art and architecture are historical authenticities which appear according to the influenced myths, nation’s recognition and hearts of ages. Research method of this paper is documental and descriptive- interpretative. Logical argument and quantitative analysis are used for documents and texts. Wisdom and philosophy as thoughts and west and east architecture are analysis units in this study. Results show that philosophical and wisdom had fundamental affects on forming architectures in all areas although the nature of the affects and origins of these thoughts have differences. The investigation of various philosophers’ thoughts in general and eastern ones in particular does not indicate any specific separation between these thoughts and the influences they created. The aim of this article is to study concepts of philosophy and wisdom and elaboration on the specifications of thoughts eradicated in philosophical and wisdom concepts of Principles in more details. We also try to indicate the peculiarities of art, artists, and artistic works influenced by these thoughts. These two types have differences in their aspects: attainment condition to the truth, method of attainment to the truth, conditions of attainment, affect kind on subjective, kind of value, audiences, attributes, rate of immunity, main origin, kind of perception, related knowledge, inclined perceptive kind, method of expression, recognition tool, origin source, area, kind of plan, approach, attitude, subject, method, objective, desired object. Wisdom is not a philosophy, but there is a relationship between them. As they have common parts, we can say theoretical part of wisdom and Islamic part of philosophy are the same. Regardless of human thoughts’ kinds, they are related to recognition of existence and accompanied by religious believes. So, the oldest philosophical thoughts are searchable within eastern religious thoughts. Results indicate the essential differences between philosophical and wisdom thoughts, and also artistic and architectural works in west and east, are that they are more influenced by philosophical and wisdom thoughts. Art from the viewpoint of west- east has orderly these features: art - profession, realistic- symbolic, modern- tradition, industry -craft, new science- tradition knowledge, quantitative- qualitative approach, learning techniques based on new science- learning mystery based on tradition knowledge. Features of west- east artists are: artists- craftsman, innovation based on creativity- innovation based on origins and roots, physical ability- spiritual merit, rebellion- succession of good, collective interest- individual impression, globalist- regionalist. Based on these features, artistic works in west- east world has these characters: unsacred- sacred, non –religious- religious, materialistic- spiritualistic, terrestrial –heavenly, superficial- deeply, no origin- origin, subsistence- eternal. Eastern art and architecture especially Iranian art and architecture have been affected by theology thoughts and founded on intuitional and praising experiences. Western art and architecture are appearance of philosophical thoughts and experiment and reasoning. From the viewpoint of wisdom, perception of architecture and its elements have two dimensional aspects. One dimension is materialistic appearance of architecture and the other one is recognition of spiritual, mystical and intuitional world of designers and users. In other words, any perception of this kind of art architecture is only possible by perception of heavenly and this world of artistes and audiences. Perfection architecture in each period have been affected by superior thoughts which lead fortune speech to form permanent face. In Iranian architecture, shaping of physical spaces has been affected by wisdom and philosophical thoughts in several ways. In one side, physical space has formed based on cultural context, thoughts, customs, traditions, and life values. In other side, collection of signs, symbols, concepts and images raised form myths, customs, and ideal have formed Iranian thoughts in physical spaces.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Expression
  • wisdom
  • philosophy
  • language
  • Differentiation and Similarity
  • Meaning
  • East and West

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