تحلیلی بر الگوی استقرار شرکت‌های دانش‌بنیان در شهر تهران و ضرورت‌های مکان‌گزینی در ارتباط با جهانی‌شدن

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 پژوهشگر دوره دکتری جغرافیا و برنامه ریزی شهری، دانشکده جغرافیا، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

2 استاد جغرافیا، دانشکده جغرافیا، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران.

3 دانشیار جغرافیا، دانشکده جغرافیا، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

جهانی‌شدن اگرچه در کنار مزیت های اقتصادی، تکنولوژیک و غیره، کاستی‌هایی نیز در ابعاد مختلف دارد، اما در مجموع روندی ناگزیر است. شهرها به عنوان مرکز مدیریت‌جهانی، هم دستخوش تغییرات زیادی در جریان این فرآیند می‌شوند و هم اثرگذاری زیادی بر سرعت و ابعاد جهانی‌شدن دارند. پژوهش پیش‌رو با اهتمام به اثرات فضایی فرآیند جهانی‌شدن و متعاقب آن ضرورت‌های کالبدی- فضایی ساختار بندی مجدد شهری در پیوند با آن، در گام نخست به تحلیل بنیان‌های کالبدی- فضایی جهانی‌شدن و در ادامه با دسته بندی بخش خدماتی دانش بنیان به عنوان کارکردهای اصلی عصر جهانی، به بررسی و تحلیل شاخص‌ها در مورد تهران پرداخته است. در این راستا پژوهش در دو گام طراحی شده‌است. گام اول وضعیت توزیع خدمات برتر(APS)، شکل استقرار و گام دوم، بررسی شاخص‌های مکان‌گزینی و تطبیق وضعیت برخورداری کالبدی – فضایی این شاخص‌ها نسبت به شهرهای جهانی انجام شده است. محدوده مورد مطالعه، شهر تهران در درون محدوده شهری و جامعه آماری، در حدود هفت هزار شرکت ارائه دهنده خدمات برتر به تفکیک 7 دسته شرکتی می‌باشد. نتایج پژوهش در بخش نخست نشان از استقرار تک هسته‌ای و متمرکز این کارکردها داشته و در بخش دوم بیانگر بیشترین اثرگذاری دسترسی به خدمات مکمل (کارکردهای اداری و در کارکردهای خدمات برتر) در پیکربندی کالبدی کارکردهای این بخش، بوده است. همچنین به دنبال این شاخص، شرکت‌های خدمات برتر عمدتاً در مناطقی استقرار یافته اند که کیفیت زندگی و هویت اجتماعی مکان در سطح بالایی بوده است. علی رغم این شکل استقرار، پیکربندی کارکردهای خدمات برتر در شهر تهران منطبق بر ضرورت‌های بازساخت در ارتباط با جهانی‌شدن نیست. تأکید بر بسترسازی فضای شهری به عنوان بخشی از ضرورت‌های اثرگذاری شهر در فرآیند جهانی شدن به عنوان بیانیه این پژوهش در پایان مطرح شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Analysis of the Distribution Pattern of Knowledge-based Corporations in Tehran and its Restructuring Necessity in Context of Globalization

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ramin Saed Moucheshy 1
  • Keramatollah Ziari 2
  • Hosein Hatami Nejad 3
  • Rahmatollah Farhoodi 3
1 Ph.D. in Geography and Urban Planning, University of Tehran
2 Professor of Geography and Urban Planning, Faculty of Geography, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
3 Assistant Professor of Geography and Urban Planning, Faculty of Geography, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Besides the economic, technologic and other advantages of globalization, this process has shortcomings in various aspects, but overall, the trend is inevitable. Cities as a center of the global management, experience many changes in this process and also have a great impact on the speed and dimension of globalization. Tehran as a capital city of an influential country in the Middle East has no proper place in any ranking of global cities. The position is largely because of its huge population and diplomatic indexes. This research studies the effects of the globalization process and the subsequent need for spatial- physical in conjunction with the urban restructuring. In the first step we address to analyze the physical basis of globalization and the knowledge-based service sector classification as core functions of the global era, in analysis of focuses on Tehran. In this regard, it is designed in two steps: First, Distribution analysis of the advanced producer Service (APS), and second, reviewing the establishment and implementation of locating condition in having physical indexes of the space of global cities. The case study, is the metropolitan area of Tehran and statistical society is more than 7000 companies offering advanced producer services in 7 levels. These sectors include: advertisement and marketing, Electronics and telecommunications, Business, Finance, Accounting, Insurance and designing. The main questions of this study are as following:
1-What are the Features, dimensions and indicators of global city?
2- How is the methods of distribution and locating of the advanced producer services (APS) in Tehran?
3- Is Tehran urban space capacity has formed according to the conditions of globalization and global cities?
The hypotheses of the study are as following:
1- It seems that Tehran does not have appropriate building regarding to the circumstances and characteristics of globalization.
2- It seems that the distribution and locating of advanced producer services (APS) in Tehran formed centralized.
The functional process of globalization and restructuring the city can be simplified in seven-step process called as “Rescaling of the space” or “Restructuring of the space” according to the Saskia sessen theory. This theory describes how the cities enter into the global economy. In the first part of the study results show centralize structure and mono_centric in the case study while in the second part they represent the most effective access to complementary services and advanced producer services. We found that advanced producer services are mainly located in areas with high level of quality of life and social identity. Despite the establishment configuration functions and advanced producer services in Tehran, it is not consistent with the requirements of the globalization restructuring. Some other results can be noted from this study include:
Three layers of spatial distribution can be determined for activities. First layer is the densest areas of activity in the city and involving the most important activities in the city and megalopolis traditional and advanced services. The second layer is the overlapping areas and residential integration and activities especially in the field of commercial activities. The third layer is known as the dominant characteristic residence. Outside the metropolitan area and its three layers, fringe and in the corridors of activities have been established. At first glance, unlike the distribution of premium services in global cities, all advanced services are concentrated in one center and no spatial separation between these activities can be seen. In addition to centralized deployment and polarized in the border regions 6 and 7, corridors of focus also formed in the 3 and 2 regions. In the southern part of Tehran, but in some cases, particularly in areas of 11, 12, the establishment of these advanced services cannot be seen. In conclusion, Tehran is an unplanned location which needs to be under the supervision of urban management. The results show that “Space of flows” pattern in Tehran has not been formed. This pattern forms based on transition from “space of place” to “space of flows”. Distribution and transmittal are based on the “decentralized centralization” and organizational high density and clustering of functions.so the urban management institution should be act in this regard.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Globalization
  • Spatial Restructuring
  • global city
  • Advanced Producer Service
  • Tehran

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