بررسی نقش توقعات ادراکی بویایی و شنوایی در طراحی و برنامه‌ریزی شهری، نمونه‌موردی: بابل

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد گروه جغرافیا و برنامه ریزی شهری، دانشکده علوم انسانی و اجتماعی، دانشگاه مازندران، بابلسر، ایران.

2 کارشناسی ارشد مدیریت و مالکیت زمین، دانشکده عمران و مهندسی محیطی، دانشگاه فنی مونیخ، باواریا، آلمان.

3 کارشناسی ارشد برنامه ریزی شهری و منطقه ای، دانشکده شهرسازی، پردیس هنرهای زیبا، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

افراد در فضاهای شهری، به واسطه تنوع محیطی، به صورت خودآگاه یا ناخودآگاه قادر به کسب تجربیاتی می‌شوند که بسیاری از آن‌ها توسط حواس ادراک می‌شوند. اما سال هاست که برنامه ریزان و طراحان شهری، کیفیات این فضاها را انحصاراً بر اساس ادراک بصری آن طبقه بندی و ارزیابی می‌کنند. خواه هدف از این توجه، تعریف فضاهای معمول با کنترل ارتفاع، جنس مصالح و رنگ ها باشد یا خواه توجه به تضادها و تفاوت ها در چشم اندازی جذاب از محیط شهری، حس بینایی همواره در اولویت قرار داشت. اما در سال‌های اخیر، توجه مطالعات مختلف به سوی حواس بویایی و شنوایی و در نتیجه فضاهای نامرئی معطوف شده است. درحالی که اغلب این مطالعات تمرکز خود را بر روی جنبه های منفی بویایی و شنیداری یا پدیدارشناسی بو یا صدا گذاشته اند. این مقاله نقش توقع افراد از محیط شهری را از دو جنبه بو و صدا، بر اساس تجربیات مردم و درک آنها از محیط شهری و تأثیر تجربیات و توقعات افراد از شناسایی این دو حس در زندگی شهری آنها بررسی کرده و آن را براساس فرآیند «ادراک با گذر کردن از مکان»1 تحلیل می‌کند. در بررسی تحقیق، توقعات حسی در درک فضایی در محیط و ارتباط انسان با فضاهای شهری بسیار تأثیرگذار تلقی شده و لایه های متفاوتی از درک از فضا را فراهم نموده اند. همچنین، درک بوها و صداها به خودی خود تحت تأثیر بافت محیطی که در آن قرار گرفته اند، تشخیص داده می شود. بنابراین، همان طور که در اغلب فرآیندهای طراحی و برنامه ریزی ترسیم سازمان های فضایی-ادراکی شهروندان با تأکید بر فضای مرئی امری متداول شده، توجه به فضای نامرئی نیز باید در این فرآیند نه تنها به عنوان غنای فضای حسی بلکه برای تقویت حس مکان درنظرگرفته شود. لذا توجه بیشتر، مکرر و جزئی تر به جنبه های حسی محیط شهری به عنوان بخشی اصلی در طراحی و برنامه ریزی شهری امری ضروری است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Examining the Role of Olfactory and Auditory Perceptual Expectations in Urban Planning and Design, Case Study: Babol

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sedigheh Lotfi 1
  • Golnoosh Hariri 2
  • Mojtaba Shahabi Shahmiri 3
1 Professor of Geography and Urban Planning, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Iran
2 M.A. in Management and Land Ownership, Technical University of Munich, Germany.
3 M.A in Urban and Regional Planning, Faculty of Urbanism, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Designers and planners have paid more attention toward quality of spaces and built environments with the development of human societies and life style changes. Many studies have concentrated on the visual perception but the role of other senses such as smelling and hearing are overlooked in urban spaces. Moreover, theoretical literature has often discussed about the negative consequences of noise and odder pollutants but has less spoken about the positive impacts of hearing and smell in improvement of mental and social wellbeing or community sense, motivation and reminding memories. But their views are usually limited to the phenomenology of sound and smell. Nevertheless, there have been attempts to study the details of such issue in unique characteristics of non-virtual perception on the personal perception of people in the recent decades. Therefore, need to discuss about this subject with a practical and systematic method is felt. The present study examines the role of perceptional expectations of people in urban environment on the base of two components: sound and smell. In the experience of understanding space, hearing due to its extent and definition of its separate vocal space has different capabilities. Phonetic space has fewer limitations and forms the space. Among the important characteristics of auditory sense, sound is affected by the environment. Sound measures the dimensions of space and makes its scale understandable. Nevertheless this character due to lack of control of urban space is seen in the current cities. In Islamic cities, the sound of prayer call gives us time and sense of place and lead to enforcement of community sense. The olfactory sense unlike the vision motivates emotions, involves directly man’s imaginations and perceptions. A smell cans remind the location of an element or image which is important for mental expectations. The methodology of this research is based on analytical and descriptive methods and the required data was collected by conducting a field work to complete the given questionnaires in different parts of the city. This study used the method of Schafer which was applied for global phonetic project by recording the phonetic symbols. The respondents (50 out of 54 persons) were interviewed in four different spaces of Babol on the base of their spatial location, subjective function and mental history. The three first spaces belonged to the early core and its immediate areas which have an organic texture while the forth space is located in the northern section of the city and is a new expanded segment of Babol. The findings of the research in four selected spaces showed different expectations regarding to the olfactory and auditory perceptions. In Sharbani intersection due to its high traffic function 60 percent of the people believed that their expectation corresponded with the olfactory and auditory environments and some (10%) respondents were stated that the noise and general buzz of people were quite pleasant. In the second space as residential area for the middle class of people, they complained about the sudden sound of construction activities which were different from their expectations as they liked to hear the voice of children playing in the close by avenues. Some people were unhappy about smell of swage and waste while others noticed the familiar smell of kitchens and old neighborhoods as adorable memory of the past. The third space as in the heart of the city, demonstrated the most vibrant part which people stated that all olfactory and auditory characteristics were corresponded with their expectations. Finally in the fourth space i.e. Noshirvani Park showed a mix expectations regarding to the different location of the park. In the margins where the main arterials join the park, the noise of cars was bothering people while in the inner part of the park the expected perceptions stratified the park users. By analyzing the results of the research, it is clear that expectations of people from scents and sounds have heavily impacted their perception and experiences from different urban environments; sometimes the complexity of understanding the space with align sensory information contradicts people’s experiences. Not only understanding the different environs is under influence of olfactory and auditory expectations but also expectations of smell and sound itself (in order to recognize and mental process) is influenced from environmental context. With respect to the discussions, the influence of sensory components particularly smell and sound and the mutual interaction between man and urban environments can be observed in these spaces. Based such realities, planners and designers should consider the role of invisible space to promote the quality of life in the cities. However the present study is one of the few new researches in the Iran and we need other researches to reveal the different and unexplored aspects of invisible spaces of cities in the country.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Sense-walking
  • Urban Ambience
  • Expectation
  • Perception
  • Babol

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