سنجش گستردگی شهری و تأثیر آن بر تغییرات کاربری اراضی با استفاده ازRS و GIS، نمونه موردی: شهر کرج طی دوره 1391-1363

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار جغرافیا و برنامه‌ریزی‌شهری، دانشکده علوم انسانی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

2 کارشناس ارشد جغرافیا و برنامه‌ریزی‌شهری، دانشکده علوم انسانی، دانشگاه زنجان، زنجان، ایران .

چکیده

رشد شتابان شهرنشینی طی چهار دهه اخیر سبب شده است که فضای فیزیکی- کالبدی شهرها گسترش یافته و زمین‌های پیرامونی خود را که اغلب اراضی کشاورزی مرغوب و باغات می‌باشند را از بین ببرد و در بافت و کالبد خود قرار دهند. گسترش تدریجی کالبد شهر به پیرامون و دست‌اندازی شهر به اراضی کشاورزی و باغات، محدودیت‌ها و زیان‌های زیست‌محیطی خاص خود را تحمیل می‌کند. با توجه به اینکه ارزیابی روند گستردگی شهری و آگاهی از الگوهای تغییرات کاربری اراضی و به‌کارگیری نتایج آن در برنامه‌ریزی‌های آینده شهر ضروری می‌باشد، بنابراین ارزیابی اصولی را در این زمینه می‌طلبد که در این تحقیق سعی شده است این کار انجام پذیرد. روش پژوهش توصیفی- تحلیلی بوده و با به‌کارگیری تکنیک های به روز و کارآمد، گستردگی فضایی کلانشهر کرج مورد ارزیابی و تحلیل قرار گرفته است. اطلاعات موردنیاز از طریق مطالعات کتابخانه‌ای و استفاده از اسناد و مدارک، همین‌طور پیمایش‌های میدانی از محدوده مورد مطالعه گردآوری شده است. طبق نتایج حاصله از بررسی تصاویر ماهواره‌ای طبقه‌بندی‌شده مساحت اراضی ساخته‌شده کلان‌شهر کرج از 4904 هکتار در سال 1363 به 11305 هکتار در سال 1391 رسیده است. با این روند رشد طبق پیش‌بینی‌های صورت گرفته بر اساس مدل تلفیقی زنجیره‌های مارکوف و سلول‌های خودکار مساحت اراضی ساخته‌شده تا سال 1401 به 12954 هکتار خواهد رسید. نتایج حاصل از بررسی گستردگی شهری کرج با مدل هلدرن نشان می‌دهد که عامل جمعیت بیشترین تأثیر را در طی 28 سال گذشته در گسترش فیزیکی شهر کرج داشته است. به طوری که نقش عامل رشد بی‌قواره شهری را خنثی کرده است. همچنین مقدار آنتروپی شانون این شهر که به مقدار حداکثر نزدیک بوده، نشان از رشد بی‌قواره این شهر در مقطع زمانی مورد مطالعه دارد. عواملی چون رشد طبیعی جمعیت به همراه مهاجرت و تبدیل شدن شهر کرج از شهرکی به شهری صنعتی و خدماتی چنین، رشد شتابانی را به این شهر داده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Analyzing Urban Sprawl and Its Impact on Land Use Changes, Case Study: Karaj

نویسندگان [English]

  • Abolfazl Meshkini 1
  • Asghar Teymouri 2
1 Assistant Professor of Geography and Urban Planning, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
2 M.A. in Geography and Urban Planning, Faculty of Humanities, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Urbanism rapidly expansion and development during last four decades has caused spreading of the physical space of cities and destruction of surrounding lands while most of them are high quality agricultural lands and gardens. The urban sprawl or low density development of cities has been one of the main urban debates because many cities have faced with its negative impacts. The term of “urban sprawl” is highly politicized, and almost has negative connotations. It is criticized for causing environmental degradation, intensifying segregation, undermining the vitality of existing urban areas and attacked on aesthetic grounds. This term has also become a rallying cry for managing urban growth. Iranian cities also have experienced this phenomenon and many researches have been conducted in this field in last few decades. This term has translated to horizontal urban expansion and uncontrolled growth in Persian language. Generally, urban sprawl refers to uncontrolled and disheveled development of suburbs. Webster’s dictionary has defined sprawl as disheveled urban development. During the last decades, rapid peace of urbanization has led to physical development of cities and their surrounding areas and resulting in destruction fertile agricultural lands. The major consequences of urban sprawl include inflated infrastructure and public service costs, energy inefficiency, spatial disparity in wealth between cities and suburbs, alteration of ecosystems patterns and processes, loss of farmlands and open spaces, increase in temperature, increase in fossil fuel consumption and emissions of greenhouse gases, reduce in water quality and quantity, and more unpleasant and monotonous suburban landscapes. The Gradual expansion of city to agricultural and orchards lands has led to many environmental impacts. One of the major problem of Iranian cities is urban sprawl and its negative impacts such as development of informal settlements, deterioration of agricultural land, overpopulation in the cities, inability to meet some of the services and in cities, disruption of physical tissue, environmental problems, especially pollution and the chaotic urban landscape. Assessing the city development process and understanding of land use changes patterns are essential to appropriate planning. This paper aimed to evaluate city sprawl and its impact on land use changes based on remote sensing and GIS techniques. Data have collected using documentary and field studies. Landsat TM satellite images for the years 1984, and 2012 were obtained from United States Geology Survey (USGS) and were utilized in this paper. Supervised classification fuzzy methods based on the severity of compliance was used to classification and changes of land use were analyzed using cross-tab model. The urban sprawl over the period of 1984 to 2012 was determined using Shannon’s entropy and Holdren’s model along with GIS tools. Shannon’s entropy is one of the commonly used and effective techniques for monitoring and measuring of urban sprawl. CA-Markov Model as a combined mode was used to simulate urban growth for future 10 years. The analysis of LULC changes has revealed that from 1984 to 2012, the built-up area has increased by greater than 6.401 hectares that is more than 43 percent. To analyze the urban sprawl, we need to demographic data and built up area. Population data is acquired from the Statistical Center of Iran and the built up area is calculated through the classification of satellite images. Findings from analyzing urban sprawl by Holdern model revealed that population factor has greatest impacts on Karaj development over the last 28 years. This factor has neutralized hideous urban growth. The amount of Shannon’s entropy of the city was close to the maximum value (2.302), showing an increase hideous urban growth in the study period. Karaj metropolis has dramatically increased in a short time due to proximity to Tehran as well as concentration of industries and services. Factors such as natural growth of population and immigration and transforming Karaj to an industrial and commercial city are key roles in city’s growth. Metropolises have profound impacts on hinterland and lead to major transformations of surrounding area due to increased population and mutual spatial impacts and functional relationships. Until 1966, the City of Karaj had an image like garden city. However, todays this city is characterized by inappropriate neighborhoods, improper construction along Tehran and Qazvin highway, multiple scattered urban systems around the villages in the Karaj hinterland, connection of small towns to the city due to growth of immigration and the destruction of green space, transfer of fresh water to Tehran for citizens’ consumption, abandoned streams of Karaj River and intentional and unintentional drying of gardens.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • evaluation
  • Urban Sprawl
  • Satellite Imagery
  • land use changes
  • Shannon’s Entropy
  • Karaj Metropolis

Bavand Consultants. (2002). Revision of Great Karaj Detailed Plan, The Organization of Housing and Urban Development of Tehran Province.

Beck, R. H., Kolankiewicz, L. J., & Camarota, S. A. (2003). Outsmarting Smart Growth: Population Growth, Immigration, and the Problem of Sprawl. Center for Immigration Studies.

Hosseinzadeh, D. K., & Houshyar, H. (2006). The Effective Elements and Viewpoints on the Physical Development of Cities in Iran. Journal of Geography and Regional Development, 4 (6), 213-226.

Karam, A. & Mohamadi, A. (2009). Assessment & Zonation of Land Suitability for Physical Development of Karaj City & Suburbs Based on Natural Factors & Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) Method, Journal of Physical Geography, 1 (4), 59-74.

Keivanlou, E. (2012). Modeling of Urban Land Use Using Cellular Automata Model; A Case of Isfahan, The 4th Conference of Urban Management and Planning, Mashhad.

Masoumi, M. T. (2011). Analysis of Spatio-Temporal Urban Sprawl Using Multi-temporal Remote Sensing Data and Statistical Models; A Case of Ardebil City, Journal of Encyclopedia (Geography), 82, 89-106.

Mishra, M., Mishra, K. K., Subudhi, A. P., Phil, M., & Cuttack, O. (2011). Urban Sprawl Mapping and Land Use Change Analysis Using Remote Sensing and GIS. In Geospatial World Forum.

Mousivand, A. J., Alimohammadi Sarab, A., & Shayan, S. (2007). A New Approach of Predicting Land Use and Land Cover Changes by Satellite Imagery and Markov Chain Model; A Case of Tehran, MSc Thesis, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

Nazarian, A. (2009). Dynamics of Iran’s Urban System. Publication of Mobtakeran, Tehran.

Ohri, A. Poonam. (2012). Urban Sprawl Mapping and Land Use Change Detection Using Remote Sensing and GIS. International Journal of Remote Sensing and GIS, 1(1), 12-25.

Rabiei, H., Zeaiean, P., & Ali mohammadi, A. (2006). Detection of Land Use/Cover Changes of Isfahan by Agricultural Lands around Urban Area Using Remote Sensing and GIS Technologies. Journal of Spatial Planning, 9 (4), 45-54.

Reveshty, M. A. (2011). The Assessment and Predicting of land Use Changes to Urban Area Using Multi-temporal Satellite Imagery and GIS: A Case Study on Zanjan, IRAN (1984-2011). Journal of Geographic Information System, 3(04), 298-305

Shirkalaee, A. (2008). Measuring of Urban Expansion and its Impact on Land Use Change in Southern Shores of the Caspian Sea Using GIS, MSc Thesis, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran.

Siedentop, S., Fina, S. (2010). Monitoring Urban Sprawl in Germany: Towards a GIS-based Measurement and Assessment Approach. Journal of Land Use Science, 5(2), 73-104.

Statistical Centre of Iran. (2011). National Population and Housing Census, Available at http://www.amar.org.ir/english/Census-2011.

Sudhira, H. S., Ramachandra, T. V., Raj, K. S., & Jagadish, K. S. (2003). Urban Growth Analysis using Spatial and Temporal Data. Journal of the Indian Society of Remote Sensing, 31(4), 299-311.

Sun, C., Wu, Z. F., Lv, Z. Q., Yao, N., & Wei, J. B. (2013). Quantifying Different Types of Urban Growth and the Change Dynamic in Guangzhou using Multi-temporal Remote Sensing Data. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geo Information, 21, 409-417.

Taghvaei, M., & Saraei, M. H. (2006). Urban Sprawl and the Available Capacities of the Land in Yazd. Journal of Geographical Researches, 38 (2), 133-152.

United States Geological Survey. (2012). Available at http://glovis.usgs.gov.

Wakode, H. B., Baier, K., Jha, R., & Azzam, R. (2014). Analysis of Urban Growth using Landsat TM/ETM data and GIS—a case study of Hyderabad, India. Arabian. Journal of Geosciences, 7(1), 109-121.

Zanganeh, S. S., Majidi, H. A., & Kaviani, A. (2012). Global Explanation of Effective Causes and Factors on Urban Sprawl. Case Study: Yazd. Journal of Applied Researches in Geographical Sciences, 12 (25), 173-193.

Zebardast, E., & Habibi, S. (2009). Examining Sprawl and its Causes in Zanjan City. HONAR-HA-YE-ZIBA (MEMARI-VA-SHAHRSAZI), 1(38), 115-123.