عنوان مقاله [English]
Our traditional neighborhood, was a safe environment, for the people who have lived in it for years. The spaces that have been made over the years, depending on the needs, values and changing conditions of human society, were the great examples of sustainable neighborhoods. Neighborhoods indicate the economic and social conditions of the community and also meet the physical, emotional and spiritual requirements of the residents. However, following the principles of modern urban planning has caused important changes in our traditional city orders and loss of great and valuable feature in traditional neighborhood, while in comparison with great social, cultural, physical, economic features of traditional neighborhood, inefficiency, disorganization and unsustainability are the characteristics of contemporary urban neighborhoods. Actually, ignoring the quality as well as spiritual requirements of the inhabitants while considering the economical and functional factors, results in reducing the role of neighborhoods in devoting the identification to the human beings, to the extent which one of the regardless issues in programming and designing process of the neighborhood appear to be the cultural values. Moreover, lacking the sense of belonging to the living environment and reducing social interaction which is the impact of the heterogeneity of social communication with the construction of modern urban space are the problems of contemporary cities. From the authors’ point of view, making use of our ancestors’ experiences in designing the identified and sustainable neighborhoods, will be helpful in overcoming the current situation and designing sustainable neighborhoods. Therefore, exploring the important factors of social sustainability and considering them in Shiraz SangeSiyah neighborhood, for recognition of sustainable values in traditional neighborhoods and applying them in designing the contemporary ones for achieving sustainable cities, are the goals of the current research. Old Sange Siyah neighborhood, is one of the eleven neighborhood of old Shiraz, which is surrounded by Sarbagh and MeydanShah neighborhoods from north, Darbe Kazeroon neighborhood from south, Baroye Shahr neighborhood from west, and Saredozak neighborhood from east. Until the recent developments, by connecting the north gate (Darvazeh Quran) to the south-west gate (Darvazeh Kazeroon), Sange Siyah path was the most significant passage of the city. Today, this path is still one of the most important passage of the old city. Despite the widespread destruction, existence of baths, mosques, markets which are functionally active in the residential context, makes the concept of “neighborhood” and “community center” in this part of the old city meaningfull. Moshir religious complex, Emamzadeh SeyedTajedin, Siyavashan mosque, Ali mosque, Sibvayeh Tomb, Kordha Hosseiniyeh, Basiri and Ziyaeyan houses are some of the famous building in this neighborhood. The results of this study indicate that some factors including spatial and physical sequences, social and physical variety, suitable scale of neighborhood, considering suitable places for social interaction lead to social sustainability in Shiraz Sange Siyah neighborhood. Actually, in addition to providing local facilities for the residents, the following reasons lead to social sustainability in Shiraz SangeSiyah neighborhood:
• There are signs and places for public ceremonies and evocative, historic places in SangeSiyah neighborhood which has been the important factors of the vitality and identification of the neighborhood.
• Introversion and spatial /physical sequences in the neighborhood, considering human scale and suitable scale of neighborhood as well as constructing appropriate passage and places for various social interaction, has improved supervision of the residents which has increased the security of the neighborhood.
• Physical, spatial, visual diversity and variety of activities in Sange Siyah neighborhood has provided suitable spaces for people in different social classes and for social interactions. They also have positive effects on vitality and identification of the neighborhood. Moreover, both the social diversity and the combination of different categories of people, was effective in providing social justice.
• Placement of the two important urban path (GozareSangeSiyah and GozareSiyavashan) and buildings such as Emamzadeh Seyed Tajedin, Siyavashan mosque, Ali mosque, Emamzadeh Seyed Zeinedin, Moshir religious complex (Moshir mosque, Moshir Hosseiniyeh), Sibvayeh Tomb and Kordha Hosseiniyeh in Sange Siyah neighborhood, not only show the connection role of the neighborhood, but also increase its development, which has also significant role on increasing residents’ participation.
So, Sange Siyah neighborhood that has been made over the years, depending on the needs, values and changing conditions of human society, is a great example of traditional neighborhoods and has the features of social sustainable neighborhood. Therefore, sustainable neighborhood should supply residents’ individual and social requirements by considering psychological needs and social growth demands. Thus, the designers should consider the variety of human needs and fulfill them in environmental design. In other words, human-centered quality approach, which was effective in the formation of traditional residential neighborhood, should replace the accommodation-based quantitative approach in new residential developments. Finally, some solutions for designing sustainable residential neighborhood are suggested.