تناظر انسان و هستی در اندیشه اسلامی و بازتاب آن در معماری اسلامی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار معماری، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه علم و صنعت ایران، تهران، ایران.

2 استادیار معماری، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه علم و صنعت ایران، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

اگرچه در بیشتر نگرش های معناگرا نوع تعامل انسان با هستی را از موضوعات مهم و تأثیرگذار در حوزه خلق آثار معماری دانسته اند ولی ابعاد و جزئیات این تعامل به ویژه در نگرش اسلامی همراه با تأثیرات آن در معماری چندان روشن نشده است. این مقاله تلاش نموده با توجه به تعریف انسان، هستی، معماری و ظرفیت های هریک و نحوه تعامل آن ها با یکدیگر از منظر اسلام (با مبنا قراردادن دیدگاه حکمت متعالیه)، رابطه بین آن ها را در قالب مدلی کاربردی در حوزه معماری ارائه نموده و براساس آن تعریفی از معماری شایسته ارائه نماید. این مقاله با توجه به آموزه های اسلامی، (به ویژه حدیث حضرت علی (ع) به تعریف مراتب نفس انسان (نامی نباتی، حسی حیوانی، ناطقه قدسی، کلی الهی)، قوا و نیازهای او پرداخته و سپس باتوجه به مراتب هستی و ظرفیت های آن، به وسیله مدلی، تناظر بین مراتب وجودی نفس انسان و هستی را نشان داده است. همچنین با روش استدلال و استنباط منطقی ثابت می نماید معماری شایسته م یتواند قابلی تهایی متناظر با مراتب وجود انسان و هستی داشته باشد و به انسان کمک نماید تا با استفاده از ابزار ادراکی خود (حس، خیال، عقل، قلب) درک مناسبی از مراتب هستی پیدا نموده و بستر اغنای نیازهای مراتب چهارگانه نفس خود را متناسب با مقتضیات زمانی و مکانی در فضای معماری فراهم آورد. بنابر دستاوردهای این پژوهش هر اثر معماری متناسب با مرتبه وجودی معمار آن، دارای یک مرتبه وجودی است و هر اندازه بستر مناس بتری برای کمک به انسان در شناخت خود و هستی، و در راستای رشد و تعالی انسان برای رسیدن به مقام انسان کامل و قرب الی ا... مهیا نماید، دارای مرتبه وجودی بالاتری بوده و از شایستگی بیشتری برخوردار خواهد بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Communication of Man and Universe in Islam: The Reflection in Islamic Architecture, Based on Transcendent Wisdom

نویسندگان [English]

  • Abdol Hamid Noghrekar 1
  • Farhang Mozaffar 1
  • Samaneh Taghdir 2
1 Associate Professor of Architecture, School of Architecture & Environmental Design, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran.
2 Assistant Professor of Architecture, School of Architecture & Environmental Design, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Although most kinds of human interaction with architecture are known but the dimensions and details of this interaction, especially in Islamic attitude is not so clear. This study attempted to define the human being, the architecture and capabilities of each and how they interact with each other from the perspective of Islam as well as the relationship
between them in a functional model presented in the field of architecture. Concentrating on the philosophical principles, as the basis of theoretical research, has been the interest of contemporary researchers. Accordingly, attempts have taken place to shape purposeful and fundamental changes in the field of architecture, seeking to achieve practical results in
this area. In this study, the basics of Transcendent Wisdom are considered as the theoretical foundation of research, and correspondence between universe, human and architecture are analyzed based on this consideration. Interaction between man and the universe is the most important topic in the field of creating architectural designs because architects
design their environment in accordance to their viewpoints on this subject. Therefore, to achieve appropriate and qualified architecture we need a good and comprehensive definition of human being, universe, architecture and their relationship. Considering the definition of human, universe, and the capacity of each of them and how they interact with each other, in the context of Islam as well as referring to the vision of Transcendent Wisdom, will help us to present the relationship between them as a practical model in the field of architecture and define qualified architecture. This research, according to Islamic teachings, (especially in the Hadith of Imam Ali) deals with the definition of the human soul and their powers and needs as well as the levels of human soul (Nominal plant soul, Animal sensory soul, rational divine soul, general divine soul) and their capacity, has shown the levels of relationships between the human soul and the universe (Position of
the Divine Nature, Reasonable universe, Universe of Kingdom, Universe of human being) in a model. Using logical reasoning and inferred method of research, this paper tends to prove that qualified architecture should make a communication between the capability of human soul levels and the universe, which will help human to use their perceptual tools (Senses, imagination, intellect, emotion) in order to reach better understanding of the universe. The most important thing about the relationship between man and architecture in this paper is based on the principle that: Architectural space can relatively meet the physical needs of human. Yet, in the case of spiritual needs, architectural space can only be a basis for spiritual perfection of human, because the perfection of man, unlike his physical affairs, is a voluntary and knowingly process rather than a compulsory affair. Research findings reveal that each architectural peace has an existential level of its own, in relate with the existential level of its creator, and it is certified in dependence to its ability in creating the grounds of human acknowledgment towards its being, and human improvement towards perfectness. The present research is a qualitative study, on the basis of logical reasoning. In the first step of this research, the powers and capabilities of human, universe and architectures are defined based on Islamic principles. The relationship between these mentioned variables are studied in the second stage, which leads to the presentation of research models as the findings of this step. Finally, we tried to define a communication model by a logical structure based on research findings. This structure will introduce and clarify the effects of human, universe and architecture on each other, and will develop the grounds of analyzing these three categories in order to improve the quality of architectural spaces. Finally, it should be noted that even though achieving specified definitions of the universe, human, architecture and their relationship is significant, yet, simplifying and appropriate structuring of the defined specifications are the most important issues, which this research is seeking to achieve. Through this process, architects could upgrade their understanding and apply it in their architecture. The presented principles and models of this research are functional in the field of art and urbanism, as they are in Architecture.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • human being
  • Universe
  • Architecture
  • Levels of Human Soul
  • Islamic View

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